Teaching medical students exposure therapy for phobia/panic - randomized, controlled comparison of face-to-face tutorial in small groups vs. solo computer instruction.


OBJECTIVE:To compare the teaching value of one session of computer-guided solo instruction in exposure therapy for phobias with that of one face-to-face small-group tutorial. DESIGN:Non-blind, randomized, controlled study. SETTING:King's College Hospital Medical School, London. PARTICIPANTS:Thirty-seven third-year medical students and 11 behaviour therapists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Seventy-five true/false multiple choice questions relating to (b) below answered at pre- and post-teaching by students and just once by behaviour therapists to obtain 'expert' scores; pre- and post-teaching ratings of interest in behaviour therapy and post-teaching ratings of educational and enjoyment value. EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS: (a) All students had a 20-minute group lecture on basic concepts and historical aspects just before randomization to: (b) 90 min of either solo computer or group face-to-face tutorial teaching. Computer instruction used a short version of 'FearFighter'- a self-help computer system for people suffering from phobias. RESULTS:Solo computer instruction taught exposure therapy principles effectively but improved multiple choice question scores marginally less than did small-group tutorial teaching. Tutorial teaching required 5 times more teacher time but led to knowledge scores that did not differ significantly from those of behaviour therapists. Students clearly rated face-to-face small-group tutorial teaching as more enjoyable. CONCLUSION:The knowledge gain from a solo computer session resembled that from a small-group face-to-face tutorial, and required far less teacher time, but was less enjoyable. Enjoyment might rise if the computer session was group-oriented and aimed at students rather than patients. In general computer teaching might be best used to complement rather than replace conventional teaching.


Med Educ


Medical education


McDonough M,Marks IM





Has Abstract


2002-05-01 00:00:00














  • Quality assurance for family practice trainees in the USA and the UK: too little too late?

    abstract::A postal survey about opinions of quality assurance and the methods used to teach this subject was sent to all family practice course organizers in England, Wales and Scotland, and to all family practice residency directors in the USA. Opinions of quality assurance were more positive from the American responders. A wi...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baker R,Green L

    更新日期:1990-05-01 00:00:00

  • Postgraduate training and career choices: an analysis of the National Physicians Survey in Japan.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study analyses and discusses recent changes in young Japanese doctors' career paths, in terms of their distribution in different types of facilities and specialties, following changes to the postgraduate clinical training system in 2004. METHODS:Data from the National Survey of Physicians, Dentists and...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koike S,Ide H,Yasunaga H,Kodama T,Matsumoto S,Imamura T

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • How clinical supervisors develop trust in their trainees: a qualitative study.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Clinical supervisors oversee trainees' performance while granting them increasing opportunities to work independently. Although the factors contributing to supervisors' trust in their trainees to conduct clinical work have been identified, how the development of trust is shaped by these factors remains less cle...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hauer KE,Oza SK,Kogan JR,Stankiewicz CA,Stenfors-Hayes T,Cate OT,Batt J,O'Sullivan PS

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • Using simulated patients to develop doctors' skills in facilitating behaviour change: addressing childhood obesity.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to describe the application, feasibility and outcomes of using simulated patients (SPs) to increase the skills of general practitioners (GPs) delivering a behavioural intervention to reduce childhood overweight and mild obesity. METHODS:Five female actors were trained as SPs. A total of 67 ...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gerner B,Sanci L,Cahill H,Ukoumunne OC,Gold L,Rogers L,McCallum Z,Wake M

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Child health surveillance: development of a multicentre course and its evaluation.

    abstract::With increasing numbers of general practitioners wishing to provide child health surveillance during the 1980s and the expected further increase with the 1990 General Practice Contract, a course in child health surveillance was developed. The content of the course was determined by a needs assessment of Welsh general ...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Houston HL,Reilly TA,Sibert JR,Davies DP

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Linked tutorial teaching by teleconference and videocassette.

    abstract::A system for linked tutorial teaching involving several groups of students at different locations has been introduced successfully into the teaching resources of the University of Wales College of Medicine. It utilizes standard telephone equipment supplemented by specially prepared videocassette material. The results ...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hibbard BM,Marshall RJ,Evans RW,Duthie HL

    更新日期:1985-09-01 00:00:00

  • Reliability of global rating scales in the assessment of clinical competence of medical students.

    abstract::Undergraduate medical students of the Ben Gurion University were evaluated upon completion of their fourth- and sixth-year medical clerkships by a 17-item rating scale, a multiple choice question (MCQ) test and a patient-oriented oral examination by two academic staff members. Pearson's correlation coefficient between...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keynan A,Friedman M,Benbassat J

    更新日期:1987-11-01 00:00:00

  • An electronic learning portfolio for reflective continuing professional development.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:These were to measure the uptake and use of an electronic learning portfolio to support reflective continuing professional development, and to characterize attitudes towards its use and obstacles to its adoption. DESIGN:Uncontrolled, longitudinal intervention study with quantitative and qualitative evaluati...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dornan T,Carroll C,Parboosingh J

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of UMAT scores and GPA in prediction of performance in medical school: a national study.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Medical schools continue to seek robust ways to select students with the greatest aptitude for medical education, training and practice. Tests of general cognition are used in combination with markers of prior academic achievement and other tools, although their predictive validity is unknown. This study compar...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Poole P,Shulruf B,Rudland J,Wilkinson T

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Well-being in an academic environment.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Due to the high volume and acuity of mental health issues presented by graduate and professional students nationwide, this study explored specific mental health needs in students in order to identify credible areas for intervention. METHODS:An assessment tool was created for this project, which identified sati...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stecker T

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Speaking up, support, control and work engagement of medical residents. A structural equation modelling analysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Medical residents can play key roles in improving health care quality by speaking up and giving suggestions for improvements. However, previous research on speaking up by medical residents has shown that speaking up is difficult for residents. This study explored: (i) whether two main aspects of medical resi...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Voogt JJ,Taris TW,van Rensen ELJ,Schneider MME,Noordegraaf M,van der Schaaf MF

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Medical faculty as humanistic physicians and teachers: the perceptions of students at innovative and traditional medical schools.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The training of caring physicians represents an important goal of medical education. Little is known however, on whether medical faculty constitute good role models for teaching humanistic skills to medical students. In this study, we examined to what extent medical students at innovative and ...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maheux B,Beaudoin C,Berkson L,Côté L,Des Marchais J,Jean P

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Student views on the effective teaching of physical examination skills: a qualitative study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The lack of published studies into effective skills teaching in clinical skills centres inspired this study of student views of the teaching behaviours of skills teachers. METHODS:We organised focus group discussions with students from Years 1-3 of a 6-year undergraduate medical curriculum. A total of 30 ra...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martens MJ,Duvivier RJ,van Dalen J,Verwijnen GM,Scherpbier AJ,van der Vleuten CP

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Education and training in medicine.

    abstract::Education and training are terms which are often used loosely, interchangeably, and require definition. Training is often seen as a series of activities which are related to the acquisition of specific skills and may be narrowly based. Education, on the other hand, has an important value base and is broader in concept...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Calman KC,Downie RS

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • 'I will never ever go back': patients' written narratives of health care communication.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Although communication with patients is essential to health care, education designed to develop patient-centred communication often ignores patients' voices. Patient stories may offer a means to explore patient experiences to inform patient-centred communication skills education design. OBJECTIVES:Our research...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Denniston C,Molloy E,Rees CE

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Role of clinical context in residents' physical examination diagnostic accuracy.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Clinical context may act as both an aid to decision making and a source of bias contributing to medical error. The effect of clinical history, a form of clinical context, on the diagnostic accuracy of the physical examination is unknown. METHODS:We randomised internal medicine residents to receive either no hi...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Sibbald M,Panisko D,Cavalcanti RB

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Teaching of primary health care in practice: a model using local health centres in undergraduate medical education.

    abstract::In Finland primary health care has a long historical background. The local communities, the state and the church have at various times and places been responsible for primary health care during the last few centuries. In 1972, a major reform took place when a new Primary Health Care Act came into force. In the same ye...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kumpusalo E,Tuomilehto J

    更新日期:1987-09-01 00:00:00

  • Applying the science of learning to medical education.

    abstract::OBJECTIVE The goal of this paper is to examine how to apply the science of learning to medical education. SCIENCE OF LEARNING The science of learning is the scientific study of how people learn. Multimedia learning - learning from words and pictures - is particularly relevant to medical education. The cognitive theory...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mayer RE

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of an instruction programme on diabetes diet by means of a teaching machine.

    abstract::In 119 patients with diabetes, student nurses, social workers, dietitians and medical students a pretest was carried out with multiple-choice questions on the subject of diabetes diet. The group was then exposed to programmed diet instruction with a teaching machine. There was a significant learning effect as measured...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Teuscher A,Heidecker B

    更新日期:1976-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of morning report case presentation on length of stay and hospitalisation costs.

    abstract:CONTEXT:The primary goal of discussing patient cases during the morning report is to teach appropriate clinical decision making. In addition, the selection of the best diagnostic strategy and application of evidence-based patient care are important. Reducing hospital costs is fundamental to controlling inflation in hea...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boushehri E,Khamseh ME,Farshchi A,Aghili R,Malek M,Ebrahim Valojerdi A

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Non-analytical models of clinical reasoning: the role of experience.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This paper aims to summarise the evidence supporting the role of experience-based, non-analytic reasoning (NAR) or pattern recognition as a central feature of expert medical diagnosis. METHODS:The authors examine a series of studies, primarily from their own research programme at McMaster University, that de...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Norman G,Young M,Brooks L

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Observational analysis of near-peer and faculty tutoring in problem-based learning groups.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Near-peer and faculty staff tutors may facilitate problem-based learning (PBL) through different means. Near-peer tutors are thought to compensate for their lack of subject matter expertise with greater adeptness at group facilitation and a better understanding of their learners. However, theoretical explanatio...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cianciolo AT,Kidd B,Murray S

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Barriers to breaking bad news among medical and surgical residents.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Communicating "bad news" to patients and their families can be difficult for physicians. OBJECTIVE:This qualitative study aimed to examine residents' perceptions of barriers to delivering bad news to patients and their family members. DESIGN:Two focus groups consisting of first- and second-year medical and...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dosanjh S,Barnes J,Bhandari M

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • Medical education for minorities at a US medical school.

    abstract::The University of Washington School of Medicine (UWSM) has initiated new efforts to build a regional minority applicant pool and to expand its educational programmes to accommodate students from disadvantaged backgrounds. Specific interventions include: establishment of medical career planner position to coordinate re...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yergan J,Phillips TJ,Schaad DC,May A,Drickey R,Yerby MS

    更新日期:1988-07-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of gender and specialty on reporting of abusive and discriminatory behaviour by medical students, residents and physician teachers.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The perception of whether a given behaviour is abusive differs between students and teachers. We speculated that attitudes towards reporting abusive and discriminatory behaviour may vary by specialty as well as by gender. METHODS:We report a cross-sectional survey of incoming medical students, medical stu...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oancia T,Bohm C,Carry T,Cujec B,Johnson D

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • How medical residents perceive the quality of supervision provided by attending doctors in the clinical setting.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The supervision of medical residents is a key responsibility of attending doctors in the clinical setting. Most attending doctors, however, are unfamiliar with the principles of effective supervision. Although inconsistent, supervision has been shown to be both important and effective for the professional ...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Busari JO,Weggelaar NM,Knottnerus AC,Greidanus PM,Scherpbier AJ

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Training the ideal hospital doctor: the specialist registrars' perspective.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:When training for junior doctors is being planned, little discussion is focused on what outcomes hospitals are trying to achieve with regard to education/training, i.e. on what makes the ideal hospital doctor. Instead, the primary focus is on the requirements of the syllabi of the Royal Colleges (credentiali...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khera N,Stroobant J,Primhak RA,Gupta R,Davies H

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • Conceptual challenges in tailoring physician performance assessment to individual practice.

    abstract::Practice inevitably narrows over time. Therefore, testing of established doctors requires that their assessment be tailored to a far narrower practice than is appropriate for testing of new doctors who have not yet differentiated. In this paper, we address the conceptual challenges of tailoring physician assessment to...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Melnick DE,Asch DA,Blackmore DE,Klass DJ,Norcini JJ

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Scripts and clinical reasoning.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Each clinical encounter represents an amazing series of psychological events: perceiving the features of the situation; quickly accessing relevant hypotheses; checking for signs and symptoms that confirm or rule out competing hypotheses, and using related knowledge to guide appropriate investigations and treatm...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Charlin B,Boshuizen HP,Custers EJ,Feltovich PJ

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Medical education accreditation in Mexico and the Philippines: impact on student outcomes.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Accreditation of medical education programmes is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, but beyond the face validity of these quality assurance methods, data linking accreditation to improved student outcomes are limited. Mexico and the Philippines both have voluntary systems of medical education accreditat...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Zanten M,McKinley D,Durante Montiel I,Pijano CV

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00