Determinants of the energy cost of front-crawl swimming in children.

Abstract:

:The aim of the present study was to define the determinants of the energy cost of swimming (Cs) in children. Eleven healthy children [mean (SD) age: 12.42 (0.53) years] who practised 7.5-8.5 h x week(-1) volunteered to take part in this study. Anthropometric dimensions such as height (H), body mass (BM), hydrostatic lift (HL) and body surface area (SA) were measured. Forty-eight hours later when maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) had been measured during 400 m of front-crawl swimming, Cs was measured over 200 m for three submaximal swimming speeds (0.9, 1.0 and 1.1 m x s(-1)). Oxygen consumption (Douglas bag method), stroke frequency (SF) and stroke length (SL) were calculated during the last 50 m of each 200 m. The mean (SD) VO(2max) of the young swimmers was 2.19 (0.38) l x min(-1) at a maximal aerobic velocity of 1.19 (0.03) m x s(-1). The values of for Cs at 0.9 m x s(-1), 1.0 m x s(-1) and 1.1 m x s(-1) were 29.27 (3.13) ml x m(-1), 30.25 (3.68) ml x m(-1) and 32.91 (3.59) ml x m(-1), respectively. There was a significant increase in Cs with increasing swim speed. In addition, SF increased with velocity when SL remained constant. The values for SF at 0.9 m x s(-1), 1.0 m x s(-1) and 1.1 m x s(-1) were 31.28 (4.36) strokes x min(-1), 34.10 (5.09) strokes x min(-1) and 38.31 (5.90) strokes x min(-1), respectively. No significant correlation was obtained between Cs and the anthropometric or stroking parameters. It was concluded that for young swimmers, anthropometric characteristics, SF and SL are not good predictors of Cs in front-crawl swimming, and that further studies are needed to explore the influence of underwater torque on Cs in prepubertal children.

journal_name

Eur J Appl Physiol

authors

Poujade B,Hautier CA,Rouard A

doi

10.1007/s00421-001-0564-2

keywords:

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2002-05-01 00:00:00

pages

1-6

issue

1

eissn

1439-6319

issn

1439-6327

journal_volume

87

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Effect of postactivation potentiation on dynamic knee extension performance.

    abstract::Six men and four women performed, in separate trials, maximal dynamic knee extensions with loads of 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% of maximal isometric knee extension peak torque (MVC). The dynamic extensions were done after postactivation potentiation (PAP) had been induced with a 10-s MVC, and in a control trial without PAP....

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s004210000304

    authors: Gossen ER,Sale DG

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of dynamic resistance training on heart rate variability in healthy older women.

    abstract::Twenty healthy women aged between 65 and 74 years, trained three times a week, for 16 weeks, on a cycle ergometer, to determine the effects of dynamic resistance training on heart rate variability (HRV). Subjects were allocated to two training groups, high (HI, n=10) and low (LO, n=10) intensity. The HI group performe...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-002-0775-1

    authors: Forte R,De Vito G,Figura F

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms behind inter-individual differences in lung diffusing capacity.

    abstract::We measured diffusing capacity (DLCO), alveolar membrane properties (D (m)), capillary lung volume (V (c)), and alveolar volume (V (A) ) in 20 healthy subjects (12 males; age 32.4 +/- 13 (SD); BMI 21.7 +/- 3; non smokers) at total lung capacity (TLC) and at approximately 80, 60, and 40% TLC. In all subjects, D (m) inc...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-007-0625-2

    authors: Miserocchi G,Messinesi G,Tana F,Passoni E,Adamo S,Romano R,Beretta E

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Physiology of difficult rock climbing.

    abstract::The purpose of this review is to explore existing research on the physiological aspects of difficult rock climbing. Findings will be categorized into the areas of an athlete profile and an activity model. An objective here is to describe high-level climbing performance; thus the focus will primarily be on studies that...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1007/s00421-003-1036-7

    authors: Watts PB

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Acute whole-body vibration elicits post-activation potentiation.

    abstract::Whole-body vibration (WBV) leads to a rapid increase in intra-muscular temperature and enhances muscle power. The power-enhancing effects by WBV can, at least in part, be explained by intra-muscular temperature. However, this does not exclude possible neural effects of WBV occurring at the spinal level. The aim of thi...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1215-2

    authors: Cochrane DJ,Stannard SR,Firth EC,Rittweger J

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of rate of force development on maximal force production: acute and training-related aspects.

    abstract::The force generated during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) is known to increase by resistance training. Although this increase cannot be solely attributed to changes in the muscle itself, many studies examining muscle activation at peak force failed to detect neural adaptations with resistance training. However,...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0380-9

    authors: Holtermann A,Roeleveld K,Vereijken B,Ettema G

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Spirulina supplementation improves oxygen uptake in arm cycling exercise.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Spirulina has previously been reported to improve high-intensity exercise performance and hemoglobin. However, spirulina's effect on arm cycling exercise has yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of spirulina supplementation on hemoglobin and on oxygen uptake, RER an...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-020-04487-2

    authors: Gurney T,Spendiff O

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Muscle cooling modulates tissue oxidative and biochemical responses but not energy metabolism during exercise.

    abstract:PURPOSE:This study investigated whether muscle cooling and its associated effects on skeletal muscle oxidative responses, blood gases, and hormonal concentrations influenced energy metabolism during cycling. METHODS:Twelve healthy participants (Males: seven; Females: five) performed two steady-state exercise sessions ...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-020-04407-4

    authors: Gagnon DD,Hancock C,McCue A,Beckett-Brown N,Gagnon J,Williams L,Marsh D,Munten S

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Exercise-induced changes in circulating levels of transforming growth factor-beta-1 in humans: methodological considerations.

    abstract::Mechanical loading of cells induces the expression of transforming growth factor-beta-1, and acute exercise, which involves mechanical loading of several tissues, could thus increase its circulating level in humans. However, no consensus exists regarding the plasma concentration of this cytokine in resting subjects (r...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-003-0881-8

    authors: Heinemeier K,Langberg H,Kjaer M

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Age differences in physiological responses to self-paced and incremental [Formula: see text] testing.

    abstract:PURPOSE:A self-paced maximal exercise protocol has demonstrated higher [Formula: see text] values when compared against traditional tests. The aim was to compare physiological responses to this self-paced [Formula: see text] protocol (SPV) in comparison to a traditional ramp [Formula: see text] (RAMP) protocol in young...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1007/s00421-016-3508-6

    authors: Jenkins LA,Mauger AR,Hopker JG

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between shock attenuation and stride length during running at different velocities.

    abstract::The purpose of the study was to investigate the characteristics of shock attenuation during high-speed running. Maximal running speed was identified for each subject [n = 8 males, 25 (SD 4.6) years; 80 (8.9) kg; 1.79 (0.06) m] as the highest speed that could be sustained for about 20 s on a treadmill. During testing, ...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-002-0646-9

    authors: Mercer JA,Vance J,Hreljac A,Hamill J

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Hemodynamic adjustments during breath-holding in trained divers.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Voluntary breath-holding (BH) elicits several hemodynamic changes, but little is known about maximal static immersed-body BH. We hypothesized that the diving reflex would be strengthened with body immersion and would spare more oxygen than maximal dry static BH, resulting in a longer BH duration. METHODS:Eleve...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-013-2690-z

    authors: Costalat G,Coquart J,Castres I,Tourny C,Lemaitre F

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of a soccer match on the cardiac autonomic control of referees.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a soccer match on the cardiac autonomic control of heart rate (HR) in soccer referees. Sixteen Spanish regional and third division referees (11 males: 26 ± 7 years, 74.4 ± 4.1 kg, 178 ± 3 cm, Yo-Yo IR1 ~600-1,560 m; 5 females: 22 ± 3 years, 59.3 ± 4.8 kg, 158 ± 8 c...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-011-2202-y

    authors: Boullosa DA,Abreu L,Tuimil JL,Leicht AS

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of a single session of spinal manipulation on strength and cortical drive in athletes.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single session of spinal manipulation (SM) increases strength and cortical drive in the lower limb (soleus muscle) of elite Taekwondo athletes. METHODS:Soleus-evoked V-waves, H-reflex and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the plantar flexors w...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1007/s00421-018-3799-x

    authors: Christiansen TL,Niazi IK,Holt K,Nedergaard RW,Duehr J,Allen K,Marshall P,Türker KS,Hartvigsen J,Haavik H

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiac performance after an endurance open water swimming race.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Endurance exercise competitions have shown a transient negative effect on global right ventricular (RV) performance. Most published studies are based on terrestrial sports. The aim of our study was to evaluate the cardiac effects after an open water swimming race. METHODS:We evaluated 33 healthy swimmers (mean...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-019-04085-x

    authors: Martinez V,la Garza MS,Grazioli G,Bijnens BH,Trapé J,Garcia G,Corzan P,Clemente A,González B,Sitges M

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiopulmonary changes during clarinet playing.

    abstract::Since playing wind instrument impedes normal respiratory functions, its effect on expiratory and blood gases as well as on cardiac function was investigated. In 15 skilled clarinettists expiratory PO(2) and PCO(2) were measured in gas drawn from a modified clarinet barrel when playing a composition (Robert Schumann's ...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1007/s00421-010-1576-6

    authors: Hahnengress ML,Böning D

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of muscle group recruitment on sniff transdiaphragmatic pressure and its components.

    abstract::Measuring maximal sniff pressures is an easy way of assessing inspiratory muscle strength. During a static manoeuvre, the pattern of inspiratory muscle recruitment during a sniff can vary from one individual to another. We therefore assessed how voluntarily changing muscle recruitment would affect sniff oesophageal, g...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s004210100469

    authors: Verin E,Delafosse C,Straus C,Morélot-Panzini C,Avdeev S,Derenne JP,Similowski T

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • The presence of symptoms of testosterone deficiency in the exercise-hypogonadal male condition and the role of nutrition.

    abstract:PURPOSE:High volumes of aerobic exercise have been associated with reduced testosterone (T), known as the exercise-hypogonadal male condition (EHMC). Although the presence of low T has been identified, few studies have assessed the presence of androgen-deficient symptoms. The purpose of this investigation is to assess ...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-017-3623-z

    authors: Hooper DR,Kraemer WJ,Saenz C,Schill KE,Focht BC,Volek JS,Maresh CM

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • High-frequency oscillations of the heart rate during ramp load reflect the human anaerobic threshold.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to analyze the dynamic behavior of the high-frequency component (HF > 0.15 Hz) of heart rate variability (HRV) and the respiratory frequency in relation to the anaerobic threshold (AT). Twenty-two healthy subjects [mean (SD) age: 24 (6) years, height: 175 (10) cm, body mass: 65 (11) kg] compl...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s004210000302

    authors: Anosov O,Patzak A,Kononovich Y,Persson PB

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship between oxygen uptake kinetics and neuromuscular fatigue in high-intensity cycling exercise.

    abstract:PURPOSE:In theory, a slow oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics leads to a greater accumulation of anaerobic by-products, which can, in turn, induce more neuromuscular fatigue. However, the existence of this relationship has never been tested. METHODS:After two sessions to measure peak [Formula: see text], peak...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-017-3585-1

    authors: Temesi J,Mattioni Maturana F,Peyrard A,Piucco T,Murias JM,Millet GY

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • No correlation between circulating ACE activity and VO2max or mechanical efficiency in women.

    abstract::The insertion (I) variant of the angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) I/D genetic polymorphism is associated with lower circulating and tissue ACE activity. Some studies have also suggested associations of ACE I/D genotype with endurance phenotypes. This study assessed the relationships between circulating ACE activi...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0309-3

    authors: Day SH,Gohlke P,Dhamrait SS,Williams AG

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation on fatigue recovery of the quadriceps.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) at selected acupoints on enhancing the rate of muscle force recovery after strenuous knee extension/flexion exercise. Ten male and seven female healthy young adults participated in this study in which they perform...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-007-0463-2

    authors: So RC,Ng JK,Ng GY

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Energy cost and body centre of mass' 3D intracycle velocity variation in swimming.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the energy cost (C) and the 3D intracycle velocity variation (IVV; swimming direction--x, vertical--y and lateral--z axes) throughout the 200 m front crawl event. Ten international level swimmers performed a maximal 200 m front crawl swim followed by 50...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-011-2284-6

    authors: Figueiredo P,Barbosa TM,Vilas-Boas JP,Fernandes RJ

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of exercise intensity on lymphocyte apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in men.

    abstract::Exercise is linked with intensity-dependent immune response. Intracellular redox status is important in programmed cell death. This study, by closely examining 18 sedentary men who exercised moderately and severely (ie. 60% and 80% VO2max, respectively) for 40 min, investigated how exercise intensities influence intra...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-005-0005-8

    authors: Wang JS,Huang YH

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Adaptations in muscle metabolic regulation require only a small dose of aerobic-based exercise.

    abstract::This study investigated the hypothesis that the duration of aerobic-based cycle exercise would affect the adaptations in substrate and metabolic regulation that occur in vastus lateralis in response to a short-term (10 day) training program. Healthy active but untrained males (n = 7) with a peak aerobic power ([Formul...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-012-2434-5

    authors: Green HJ,Burnett M,Jacobs I,Ranney D,Smith I,Tupling S

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of non-uniform skin temperature on thermoregulatory response during water immersion.

    abstract::The present study investigated the effect of non-uniform skin temperature distribution on thermoregulatory responses and subjective thermal sensation during water immersion. Ten healthy male subjects carried out 60 min water immersion twice, once with uniform (UST) and once with non-uniform (NUST) skin temperature. In...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-008-0714-x

    authors: Wakabayashi H,Kaneda K,Sato D,Tochihara Y,Nomura T

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Isometric exercise training lowers resting blood pressure and improves local brachial artery flow-mediated dilation equally in men and women.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Isometric resistance training has repeatedly shown to be an effective exercise modality in lowering resting blood pressure (BP), yet associated mechanisms and sex differences in the response to training remain unclear. Exploration into potential sex differences in the response to isometric resistance train...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-016-3366-2

    authors: Badrov MB,Freeman SR,Zokvic MA,Millar PJ,McGowan CL

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Erythropoietin acute reaction and haematological adaptations to short, intermittent hypobaric hypoxia.

    abstract::This study aimed to determine whether brief hypoxic stimuli in a hypobaric chamber are able to elicit erythropoietin (EPO) secretion, and to effectively stimulate erythropoiesis in the short term. In two different experiments, a set of haematological, biochemical, haemorheological, aerobic performance, and medical tes...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s004210050669

    authors: Rodríguez FA,Ventura JL,Casas M,Casas H,Pagés T,Rama R,Ricart A,Palacios L,Viscor G

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • Kinetics of creatine ingested as a food ingredient.

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to test if the consumption of creatine incorporated in food bars modifies creatine plasma kinetics, erythrocyte retention and loss in urine and in feces when compared with its consumption in the form of an aqueous solution (AS). Seventeen healthy young men ingested 2 g creatine either ...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-007-0558-9

    authors: Deldicque L,Décombaz J,Zbinden Foncea H,Vuichoud J,Poortmans JR,Francaux M

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of 4-week training period on plasma neuropeptide Y, leptin and ghrelin responses in male rowers.

    abstract::The aim was to investigate the effect of high-volume low intensity resistance training protocol combined with endurance training on plasma neuropeptide Y (NPY) concentration in rowers. Additionally, leptin and ghrelin, as markers for body energy balance concentrations, were monitored. 12 highly trained national and in...

    journal_title:European journal of applied physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1007/s00421-011-2166-y

    authors: Rämson R,Jürimäe J,Jürimäe T,Mäestu J

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00