The twilight envelope: a user-centered approach to describing roadway illumination at night.


:Visual recognition functions, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity, deteriorate rapidly over the declining luminances found during civil twilight. Thus civil twilight, a critical part of the transition between daylight and darkness, represents lighting conditions that may be useful to describe artificial illumination. Automotive headlamps project a three-dimensional beam that ranges from illumination levels comparable to daylight at the vehicle to the dark limit of civil twilight (3.3 1x) at some distance ahead. This twilight envelope is characterized as a distance beyond which foveal visual functions are severely impaired, and thus it provides a general, functional description of the useful extent of the headlamp beam. This user-centered approach to describing illumination is useful for characterizing visibility when driving at night or in other artificially lit environments. This paper discusses the twilight envelope approach and its application to intervehicle variations in headlamp systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include user-centered description of artificial illumination and driver/pedestrian safety education.


Hum Factors


Human factors


Andre J,Owens DA





Has Abstract


2001-01-01 00:00:00












  • Spatial audio displays improve the detection of target messages in a continuous monitoring task.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The detection of target messages in a background of competing speech and the identification of the color/number combinations in those messages were examined in a continuous monitoring task. BACKGROUND:Previous research has shown that if listeners know when and where to listen, speech-on-speech intelligibilit...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McAnally KI,Martin RL

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of vision and friction on haptic perception.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of vision and masking friction on contact perception and compliance differentiation thresholds in a simulated tissue-probing task. BACKGROUND:In minimally invasive surgery, the surgeon receives limited haptic feedback because of the current design of the ...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perreault JO,Cao CG

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Age-Related Differences in the Relationships Between Lower-Limb Joint Proprioception and Postural Balance.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:In the present study we aimed to investigate the relationships between lower-limb joint proprioception and postural balance. Age-related differences in such relationships were also identified. BACKGROUND:Impaired postural balance is reportedly one of the most common risk factors for fall accidents. Intervent...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen X,Qu X

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • The Treadport: Natural Gait on a Treadmill.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the differences between walking on an advanced robotic locomotion interface called the Treadport and walking overground with healthy subjects. BACKGROUND:Previous studies have compared treadmill-based and overground walking in terms of gait parameters. The Treadport's unique features including se...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chesebrough S,Hejrati B,Hollerbach J

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • The relation between driving experience and recognition of road signs relative to their locations.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Examine how driving experience and expectations affect the ability of experienced drivers to identify traffic signs--specifically, no right turn (NRT) and no left turn (NLT) at intersections. BACKGROUND:Failure to heed signs is a frequent cause of accidents, and the authors focused on the contributions of e...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Borowsky A,Shinar D,Parmet Y

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Google glass: a driver distraction cause or cure?

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We assess the driving distraction potential of texting with Google Glass (Glass), a mobile wearable platform capable of receiving and sending short-message-service and other messaging formats. BACKGROUND:A known roadway danger, texting while driving has been targeted by legislation and widely banned. Support...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sawyer BD,Finomore VS,Calvo AA,Hancock PA

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Odor identification by name and by edibility: life-span development and safety.

    abstract::The study explored how subjects from childhood (8-14 years old) to elderly adulthood could identify the odors of 17 everyday products. Performance at naming followed an inverted U-shaped course over age, best in young adults and poorest in children and elderly. A discrimination task given to the adults revealed parall...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Wijk RA,Cain WS

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • Biomechanical Evaluation of a Bed Feature to Assist in Turning and Laterally Repositioning Patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study investigated the effects of hospital bed features on the biomechanical stresses experienced by nurses when turning and laterally repositioning patients. Turn Assist, a common feature in ICU beds that helps to rotate patients, and side rail orientation were evaluated. BACKGROUND:Manual patient hand...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wiggermann N

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • The Validity of Three New Driving Simulator Scenarios: Detecting Differences in Driving Performance by Difficulty and Driver Gender and Age.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We explored the convergent and discriminant validity of three driving simulation scenarios by comparing behaviors across gender and age groups, considering what we know about on-road driving. BACKGROUND:Driving simulators offer a number of benefits, yet their use in real-world driver assessment is rare. More...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maxwell H,Weaver B,Gagnon S,Marshall S,Bédard M

    更新日期:2020-07-09 00:00:00

  • Foveal task complexity and visual funneling.

    abstract::The current study was designed to examine whether increasing foveal task complexity would cause the functional field to shrink as a result of a visual funneling effect. Using 8 male participants, the study examined whether the effects of foveal task complexity on peripheral performance was most pronounced at the far p...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murata A

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Spearcons (speech-based earcons) improve navigation performance in advanced auditory menus.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The goal of this project is to evaluate a new auditory cue, which the authors call spearcons, in comparison to other auditory cues with the aim of improving auditory menu navigation. BACKGROUND:With the shrinking displays of mobile devices and increasing technology use by visually impaired users, it becomes ...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Walker BN,Lindsay J,Nance A,Nakano Y,Palladino DK,Dingler T,Jeon M

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of Frequent Interruption on Nurses' Patient-Controlled Analgesia Programming Performance.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The purpose was to add to the body of knowledge regarding the impact of interruption on acute care nurses' cognitive workload, total task completion times, nurse frustration, and medication administration error while programming a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump. BACKGROUND:Data support that the seve...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Campoe KR,Giuliano KK

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Validation of a Driving Simulator Study on Driver Behavior at Passive Rail Level Crossings.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The behavioral validation of an advanced driving simulator for its use in evaluating passive level crossing countermeasures was performed for stopping compliance and speed profile. BACKGROUND:Despite the fact that most research on emerging interventions for improving level crossing safety is conducted in a d...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Larue GS,Wullems C,Sheldrake M,Rakotonirainy A

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Attenuation performance of four hearing protectors under dynamic movement and different user fitting conditions.

    abstract::An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of movement activities and alternative fitting procedures on protection levels afforded by four hearing protection devices (HPDs). Psychophysical attenuation measurements at nine one-third-octave bands from 125 to 8000 Hz were obtained prior to, during, and followin...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Casali JG,Park MY

    更新日期:1990-02-01 00:00:00

  • Ocular vergence measurement in projected and collimated simulator displays.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to investigate electrooculography (EOG) as a measurement of ocular vergence in both collimated and projected simulator environments. The task required participants to shift their gaze between a central fixation point and a target appearing at one of three eccentricities. EOG was effective...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morahan P,Meehan JW,Patterson J,Hughes PK

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of Gesture-Based Interaction on Driving Behavior: A Driving Simulator Study Using the Projection-Based Vehicle-in-the-Loop.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We observe the driving performance effects of gesture-based interaction (GBI) versus touch-based interaction (TBI) for in-vehicle information systems (IVISs). BACKGROUND:As a contributing factor to a number of traffic accidents, driver distraction is a significant problem for traffic safety. More specificall...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Graichen L,Graichen M,Krems JF

    更新日期:2020-08-14 00:00:00

  • The association between combination of hand force and forearm posture and incidence of lateral epicondylitis in a working population.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this prospective study is to investigate the exposure-response relationships between various workplace physical exposures of force, repetition, and their combination assessed at an individual level with lateral epicondylitis (LE). BACKGROUND:Workplace upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fan ZJ,Silverstein BA,Bao S,Bonauto DK,Howard NL,Smith CK

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effectiveness of individual and dyadic training protocols: the influence of trainee interaction anxiety.

    abstract::The present study focuses on the consequences of the social dynamics that are created whenever two or more individuals are brought together for the purpose of training. An investigation of the role of individual differences in interaction anxiety on training outcomes demonstrated that the comparative effectiveness of ...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Arthur W Jr,Young B,Jordan JA,Shebilske WL

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of insertion method and force on hand clearance envelopes for rubber hose insertion tasks.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to determine how hand space for manual insertion of flexible hoses is affected by insertion method and force. BACKGROUND:Adequate space is needed during assembly tasks in which workers join parts together with their hands. Hose installations are an example of such a task. Hand clear...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Grieshaber DC,Armstrong TJ,Chaffin DB,Keyserling WM,Ashton-Miller J

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • Prefrontal Hemodynamics of Physical Activity and Environmental Complexity During Cognitive Work.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess performance and cognitive states during cognitive work in the presence of physical work and in natural settings. BACKGROUND:Authors of previous studies have examined the interaction between cognitive and physical work, finding performance decrements in working memory. Neur...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McKendrick R,Mehta R,Ayaz H,Scheldrup M,Parasuraman R

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Workload and Performance: Associations, Insensitivities, and Dissociations.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to distill and define those influences under which change in objective performance level and the linked cognitive workload reflections of subjective experience and physiological variation either associate, dissociate, or are insensitive, one to another. BACKGROUND:Human factors/ergo...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hancock PA,Matthews G

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Web-based information search and retrieval: effects of strategy use and age on search success.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between strategy use and search success on the World Wide Web (i.e., the Web) for experienced Web users. An additional goal was to extend understanding of how the age of the searcher may influence strategy use. BACKGROUND:Current investigations of...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stronge AJ,Rogers WA,Fisk AD

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Eyestrain in VDU users: viewing distance and the resting position of ocular muscles.

    abstract::Without fixation stimuli--for instance, in darkness--accommodation and convergence of the eyes reach an intermediate state that is relatively stable within a subject but which ranges from about 30 cm to infinity across subjects. This study investigated whether these oculomotor positions in darkness are related to visu...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jaschinski-Kruza W

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • Human performance consequences of stages and levels of automation: an integrated meta-analysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We investigated how automation-induced human performance consequences depended on the degree of automation (DOA). BACKGROUND:Function allocation between human and automation can be represented in terms of the stages and levels taxonomy proposed by Parasuraman, Sheridan, and Wickens. Higher DOAs are achieved ...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Onnasch L,Wickens CD,Li H,Manzey D

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • A ten-year follow-up of driving patterns among community-dwelling elderly.

    abstract::Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study data were used to examine age-related changes in driving patterns over 10 years in a community-dwelling cohort of elders. In 1974, 86% of the men and 76% of the women reported that the automobile was their chief mode of transportation. At each follow-up, 87% or more of those who h...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jette AM,Branch LG

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • The Effects of Vehicle Automation on Driver Engagement: The Case of Adaptive Cruise Control and Mind Wandering.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This field study examined the effects of adaptive cruise control (ACC) on mind wandering prevalence. BACKGROUND:ACC relieves the driver of the need to regulate vehicle speed and following distance, which may result in safety benefits. However, if ACC reduces the amount of attentional resources drivers must d...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weaver SM,Roldan SM,Gonzalez TB,Balk SA,Philips BH

    更新日期:2020-12-09 00:00:00

  • Models of shiftwork and health: an examination of the influence of stress on shiftwork theory.

    abstract::This paper critically reviews models of shiftwork and health and provides a historical overview of changes in the conceptualization of the association between them. Models are hypothetical and conceptually broad, becoming more so as they move away from linear, chronobiological to multidirectional, psychological concep...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Taylor E,Briner RB,Folkard S

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Expertise differences in attentional strategies related to pilot decision making.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We investigated expertise differences in pilot decision making by examining a hypothesized attention-action link. During simulated flight we measured the accuracy and latency of more and less expert pilots' decision outcomes and used eye tracking to measure their attention. We also examined whether decision o...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schriver AT,Morrow DG,Wickens CD,Talleur DA

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Individual Markers of Resilience in Train Traffic Control: The Role of Operators' Goals and Strategic Mental Models and Implications for Variation, Expertise, and Performance.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to examine individual markers of resilience and obtain quantitative insights into the understanding and the implications of variation and expertise levels in train traffic operators' goals and strategic mental models and their impact on performance. BACKGROUND:The Dutch railways are...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lo JC,Pluyter KR,Meijer SA

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of the relationship between box weight and trunk kinematics: does a reduction in box weight necessarily correspond to a decrease in spinal loading?

    abstract::Typically, the simplest and most cost-efficient ergonomic solution to offset the rising costs of low back injuries is to reduce the box weight that is lifted. However, there is limited research on how a worker interacts with the box. In the present study, we quantify the utility of reducing the weight that is lifted -...

    journal_title:Human factors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Davis KG,Marras WS

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00