Difficulties of Identifying the Early HIV Antibody Seroconversion Period Depending on the Confirmatory Assay.


Background:Identification of HIV infection at the early stage is valuable for patient management, for prevention, and for research purposes. In practice, identification of a recent HIV infection at diagnosis proves challenging after HIV antibody seroconversion but can be suspected using Western blots (WBs) or immunoblots (IBs) as confirmatory assays. Methods:Five commercially available confirmatory assays were compared using 43 samples from recently infected individuals. This included 2 WBs (New LAV Blot I, Biorad, and HIV Blot 2.2, MP Biomedicals), 2 IBs (INNO-LIA HIV I/II, Fujirebio, and RecomLine HIV-1 & HIV-2, Mikrogen Diagnostik), and 1 immunochromatographic single-use assay (Geenius HIV1/2 supplemental assay, Biorad). Results:Following the manufacturer's recommendations for interpretation, the 2 WBs led to indeterminate results for 30% and 42% of the samples, suggesting recent infection, compared with 2%-7% for the 3 other assays. When interpreted based on the Fiebig classification, concordant stages were observed in 42% of samples, and only 49% were classified as early seroconversion by all 5 assays. For the remaining specimens, the distinction with chronic infection was highly variable depending on the assay (5%-100%). Conclusions:Clinical laboratories must consider this variability, which must be kept in mind both for initial diagnosis and for multicenter studies for which inclusion criteria refer to serological profiles by confirmatory assays.


Open Forum Infect Dis


Stefic K,Mahjoub N,Desouche C,Néré ML,Thierry D,Delaugerre C,Barin F,Chaix ML




Has Abstract


2020-04-21 00:00:00












  • Correlation Between Tenofovir Drug Levels and the Renal Biomarkers RBP-4 and ß2M in the ION-4 Study Cohort.

    abstract:Background:Concomitant dosing of ledipasvir (LDV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) results in an increased tenofovir (TFV) area under the curve (AUC). The aim of this study was to examine whether there was a correlation between the renal biomarkers retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and β2 microglobulin (β2M) and...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chan A,Park L,Collins LF,Cooper C,Saag M,Dieterich D,Sulkowski M,Naggie S

    更新日期:2019-01-24 00:00:00

  • Prevention of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device-Related Infection in Patients With Cancer: The Role of a Comprehensive Prophylactic Bundle Approach That Includes the Antimicrobial Mesh.

    abstract:Background:Oncological patients have several additional risk factors for developing a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED)-related infection. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical impact of our comprehensive bundle approach that includes the novel minocycline and rifampin antimicrobial mesh (TYRX) for the preven...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khalil M,Karimzad K,Durand JB,Malek AE,Raad II,Viola GM

    更新日期:2020-09-13 00:00:00

  • Emerging Aspergillus Species Almost Exclusively Associated With Primary Immunodeficiencies.

    abstract::Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the most serious mold infection encountered in patients with iatrogenic immunosuppression. IA is also a major cause of mortality and morbidity in individuals with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Although Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common etiologic agent of IA reported in PID patie...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Seyedmousavi S,Lionakis MS,Parta M,Peterson SW,Kwon-Chung KJ

    更新日期:2018-09-26 00:00:00

  • West Nile Virus Central Nervous System Infection in Patients Treated With Rituximab: Implications for Diagnosis and Prognosis, With a Review of Literature.

    abstract::The spectrum of West Nile virus (WNV) infection continues to be elucidated. Many cases of WNV are asymptomatic; however, in immunocompromised patients, symptoms are more likely to be severe. We describe fatal WNV central nervous system disease in lymphoma patients who received rituximab, blunting the inflammatory resp...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morjaria S,Arguello E,Taur Y,Sepkowitz K,Hatzoglou V,Nemade A,Rosenblum M,Cavalcanti MS,Palomba ML,Kaltsas A

    更新日期:2015-09-19 00:00:00

  • Cost of Public Health Response and Outbreak Control With a Third Dose of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine During a University Mumps Outbreak-Iowa, 2015-2016.

    abstract:Background:The United States is experiencing mumps outbreaks in settings with high 2-dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine coverage, mainly universities. The economic impact of mumps outbreaks on public health systems is largely unknown. During a 2015-2016 mumps outbreak at the University of Iowa, we estimated the c...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marin M,Kitzmann TL,James L,Quinlisk P,Aldous WK,Zhang J,Cardemil CV,Galeazzi C,Patel M,Ortega-Sanchez IR

    更新日期:2018-10-04 00:00:00

  • Eight-Year-Old Male With Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis.

    abstract::Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic free-living amoeba that is found in warm, fresh water and causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). The following report demonstrates the rapid and destructive clinical features of PAM in an 8-year-old male who presented with severe headaches approximately 12 days after swimm...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vareechon C,Tarro T,Polanco C,Anand V,Pannaraj PS,Dien Bard J

    更新日期:2019-07-29 00:00:00

  • Physical Functioning Among Patients Aging With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Versus HIV Uninfected: Feasibility of Using the Short Physical Performance Battery in Clinical Care of People Living With HIV Aged 50 or Older.

    abstract:Background:The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) is a well regarded physical functioning assessment including balance, gait speed, and chair-stand tests. Its use has not been widely assessed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. We evaluated the feasibility of integrating the SPPB into care of aging peopl...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crane HM,Miller ME,Pierce J,Willig AL,Case ML,Wilkin AM,Brown S,Asirot MG,Fredericksen RJ,Saag MS,Landay AL,High KP

    更新日期:2019-03-11 00:00:00

  • Clinical Management of Respiratory Adverse Events Associated With Amikacin Liposome Inhalation Suspension: Results From a Patient Survey.

    abstract::Patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease treated with amikacin liposome inhalation suspension (ALIS) at 2 clinics in the United States were surveyed to assess the frequency and management of ALIS-associated respiratory adverse events. Most respondents experienced these events, but management through phys...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Swenson C,Lapinel NC,Ali J

    更新日期:2020-03-02 00:00:00

  • Trends in Kindergarten Rates of Vaccine Exemption and State-Level Policy, 2011-2016.

    abstract:Background:Kindergarten-entry vaccination requirements have played an important role in controlling vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Forty-eight states and the District of Colombia offer nonmedical exemptions to vaccines, ranging in stringency. Methods:We analyzed state-level exemption data from 2011...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Omer SB,Porter RM,Allen K,Salmon DA,Bednarczyk RA

    更新日期:2017-11-15 00:00:00

  • Treatment Options for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections.

    abstract::This article provides a comprehensive review of currently available treatment options for infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is an emerging and serious global public health threat. Carbapenems have been used as the "last-line" treatment f...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Morrill HJ,Pogue JM,Kaye KS,LaPlante KL

    更新日期:2015-05-05 00:00:00

  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Trends Observed in Urinary Pathogens Obtained From New York State.

    abstract::International guidelines recommend using local susceptibility data to direct empiric therapy for acute uncomplicated cystitis. We evaluated outpatient urinary isolate susceptibility trends in New York State. Nitrofurantoin had the lowest resistance prevalence whereas trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones ...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rank EL,Lodise T,Avery L,Bankert E,Dobson E,Dumyati G,Hassett S,Keller M,Pearsall M,Lubowski T,Carreno JJ

    更新日期:2018-11-16 00:00:00

  • A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Aspirin Effects on Immune Activation in Chronically Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults on Virologically Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Immune activation persists despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and predicts non-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) comorbidities including cardiovascular disease. Activated platelets play a key role in atherothrombosis and inflammation, and...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Brien MP,Hunt PW,Kitch DW,Klingman K,Stein JH,Funderburg NT,Berger JS,Tebas P,Clagett B,Moisi D,Utay NS,Aweeka F,Aberg JA

    更新日期:2017-01-19 00:00:00

  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Men Who Have Sex With Men Have an Altered T-Cell Phenotype and Bioenergy Metabolism.

    abstract:Background:We recently reported that the levels of activation, exhaustion, and terminal differentiation within the peripheral T-cell compartment were increased in men who have sex with men (MSM) compared with blood bank donors. During activation and differentiation, T cells undergo metabolic changes to maintain their e...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kruize Z,Maurer I,van Dort KA,van den Elshout MAM,Hoornenborg E,Booiman T,Prins M,Kootstra NA

    更新日期:2020-07-05 00:00:00

  • "Is a Bird in the Hand Worth 5 in the Bush?": A Comparison of 3 Data-to-Care Referral Strategies on HIV Care Continuum Outcomes in San Francisco.

    abstract:Background:Health departments utilize HIV surveillance data to identify people with HIV (PWH) who need re-linkage to HIV care as part of an approach known as Data to Care (D2C.) The most accurate, effective, and efficient method of identifying PWH for re-linkage is unknown. Methods:We evaluated referral and care conti...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sachdev DD,Mara E,Hughes AJ,Antunez E,Kohn R,Cohen S,Scheer S

    更新日期:2020-08-21 00:00:00

  • Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Safety in Elderly Adults.

    abstract:Background:The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) were both recommended to adults aged ≥65 years. The study examines adults ≥65 years for risk of adverse events (AEs) requiring medical attention following vaccination with PCV13 as compared wit...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tseng HF,Sy LS,Qian L,Liu IA,Mercado C,Lewin B,Tartof SY,Nelson J,Jackson LA,Daley MF,Weintraub E,Klein NP,Belongia E,Liles EG,Jacobsen SJ

    更新日期:2018-05-02 00:00:00

  • Corticosteroids for Posttransplant Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in Cryptococcus gattii Meningoencephalitis: Case Report and Literature Review.

    abstract::Cryptococcus gattii represents an emerging fungal pathogen of immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts in the United States. To our knowledge, this is the first case of posttransplant immune reconstitution syndrome due to C. gattii meningoencephalitis successfully treated with corticosteroids. We also report succes...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Canfield GS,Henao-Martínez AF,Franco-Paredes C,Zhelnin K,Wilson ML,Shihadeh KC,Wyles D,Gardner EM

    更新日期:2019-10-23 00:00:00

  • Rethinking risk for pneumococcal disease in adults: the role of risk stacking.

    abstract::Using data from 3 private healthcare claims repositories, we evaluated the incidence of pneumococcal disease among adults with US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) defined at-risk conditions or rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Crohn's disease, and neuromuscular disorder/seizures and those with traditiona...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pelton SI,Shea KM,Weycker D,Farkouh RA,Strutton DR,Edelsberg J

    更新日期:2015-03-20 00:00:00

  • Geographic Expansion of Lyme Disease in the Southeastern United States, 2000-2014.

    abstract::Background.  The majority of Lyme disease cases in the United States are acquired on the east coast between northern Virginia and New England. In recent years the geographic extent of Lyme disease has been expanding, raising the prospect of Lyme disease becoming endemic in the southeast. Methods.  We collected confirm...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lantos PM,Nigrovic LE,Auwaerter PG,Fowler VG Jr,Ruffin F,Brinkerhoff RJ,Reber J,Williams C,Broyhill J,Pan WK,Gaines DN

    更新日期:2015-09-27 00:00:00

  • The Cytokine Response Profile of Ebola Virus Disease in a Large Cohort of Rhesus Macaques Treated With Monoclonal Antibodies.

    abstract::Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that causes outbreaks of a severe hemorrhagic fever known as EBOV disease (EVD). Ebola virus disease is characterized in part by a dysregulated immune response and massive production of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. To better understand the immune respon...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Banadyga L,Siragam V,Zhu W,He S,Cheng K,Qiu X

    更新日期:2019-02-06 00:00:00

  • Impact of Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Management on Antibiotic Exposure and Outcomes: Real-world Evidence.

    abstract:Background:Delayed pathogen identification and nonspecific clinical findings make definitive decisions regarding antibiotics challenging. The stimuli of bacterial toxins and inflammation make procalcitonin (PCT) unique in its ability to differentiate bacterial infection from other causes of inflammation, and thus it is...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Broyles MR

    更新日期:2017-10-03 00:00:00

  • Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Causing Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: A Genetic-Based Chronicle of Evolving Antibiotic Resistance.

    abstract:: Background.  Successful treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is thwarted by the emergence of antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation on prosthetic devices. Our aims were to decipher the molecular basis of resistance in a un...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Domitrovic TN,Hujer AM,Perez F,Marshall SH,Hujer KM,Woc-Colburn LE,Parta M,Bonomo RA

    更新日期:2016-10-21 00:00:00

  • Corrigendum: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection and Re-activation During Nucleos(t)ide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Sparing Antiretroviral Therapy in a High-HBV Endemicity Setting.

    abstract::[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofy251.]. ...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章,已发布勘误


    authors: Abdullahi A,Fopoussi OM,Torimiro J,Atkins M,Kouanfack C,Geretti AM

    更新日期:2019-04-03 00:00:00

  • A Distinct Phylogenetic Cluster of Indian Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Isolates.

    abstract:Background:From an isolated epidemic, coronavirus disease 2019 has now emerged as a global pandemic. The availability of genomes in the public domain after the epidemic provides a unique opportunity to understand the evolution and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus across the g...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Banu S,Jolly B,Mukherjee P,Singh P,Khan S,Zaveri L,Shambhavi S,Gaur N,Reddy S,Kaveri K,Srinivasan S,Gopal DR,Siva AB,Thangaraj K,Tallapaka KB,Mishra RK,Scaria V,Sowpati DT

    更新日期:2020-09-18 00:00:00

  • Errors in Diagnostic Test Use and Interpretation Contribute to the High Number of Lyme Disease Referrals in a Low-Incidence State.

    abstract::Lyme disease accounted for more than two-thirds (56 of 81, 69.1%) of all tick-borne disease referrals to a large, academic infectious diseases clinic in a low-incidence state. Deviations from diagnostic testing guidelines and errors in test interpretation were common (23 of 35, 65.7%), suggesting that frontline provid...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boyce RM,Speight C,Lin JT,Farel CE

    更新日期:2020-01-11 00:00:00

  • Group B Streptococci Colonization in Pregnant Guatemalan Women: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Vaginal Microbiome.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Infection causes 1 of every 5 neonatal deaths globally. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most significant pathogen, although little is known about its epidemiology and risk in low-income countries. METHODS:A cross-sectional study in 2015 at a public hospital in Guatemala City enrolled women ≥35 weeks' ges...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rick AM,Aguilar A,Cortes R,Gordillo R,Melgar M,Samayoa-Reyes G,Frank DN,Asturias EJ

    更新日期:2017-02-08 00:00:00

  • Artificial Intelligence Platform Demonstrates High Adherence in Patients Receiving Fixed-Dose Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir: A Pilot Study.

    abstract::This study evaluated health outcomes among people who inject drugs who are infected with hepatitis C virus using an artificial intelligence platform. Mean (SD) cumulative adherence (visual confirmation of administration) was 91.3% (10.5%). Most subjects (88.2%) achieved ≥80% adherence to treatment, and 88.2% (15 of 17...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Litwin AH,Shafner L,Norton B,Akiyama MJ,Agyemang L,Guzman M,Vera T,Heo M

    更新日期:2020-07-20 00:00:00

  • Chronic Pulmonary Histoplasmosis-A Scoping Literature Review.

    abstract::Chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis (CPH) is an uncommon manifestation of Histoplasma infection with features similar to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In endemic areas, it may be misdiagnosed as smear-negative pulmonary TB. Historical case series mainly from patients with presumed TB described a high frequency of cavitati...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Baker J,Kosmidis C,Rozaliyani A,Wahyuningsih R,Denning DW

    更新日期:2020-04-06 00:00:00

  • Fusarium Osteomyelitis in a Patient With Pearson Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    abstract::Fusarium species are ubiquitous fungi causing a wide array of infections, including invasive disease in the immunosuppressed. We present a fusarium bone infection in a child with Pearson syndrome and review the literature. Ten cases of fusarium osteomyelitis were reported in the past 40 years, and we review the treatm...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hiebert RM,Welliver RC,Yu Z

    更新日期:2016-10-07 00:00:00

  • Appropriateness of gram-negative agent use at a tertiary care hospital in the setting of significant antimicrobial resistance.

    abstract::Background.  Practicing antimicrobial stewardship in the setting of widespread antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative bacilli, particularly in urban areas, is challenging. Methods.  We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study at a tertiary care hospital with an established antimicrobial stewardship progra...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vora NM,Kubin CJ,Furuya EY

    更新日期:2015-02-19 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of Cryptococcal Antigen and Outcomes in People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Honduras: A Cohort Study.

    abstract:Background:Cryptococcal meningitis is a major cause of death among people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH). Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) testing of asymptomatic patients is an important public health measure to reduce mortality in high-incidence areas. However, limited data exist on CrAg prevalence in Central Ame...

    journal_title:Open forum infectious diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zuniga-Moya JC,Romero-Reyes LE,Saavedra EB,Montoya S,Varela D,Borjas M,Cerna A,Bejarano S,Martinez P,Lujan K,Erazo K,Lainez I,Pineda L,Yanes D,O'Halloran JA,Spec A

    更新日期:2020-11-13 00:00:00