Estimating the cost of illness and burden of disease associated with the 2014-2015 chikungunya outbreak in the U.S. Virgin Islands.


:Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus that causes fever and severe polyarthralgia, swept through the Americas in 2014 with almost 2 million suspected or confirmed cases reported by April 2016. In this study, we estimate the direct medical costs, cost of lost wages due to absenteeism, and years lived with disability (YLD) associated with the 2014-2015 CHIKV outbreak in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). For this analysis, we used surveillance data from the USVI Department of Health, medical cost data from three public hospitals in USVI, and data from two studies of laboratory-positive cases up to 12 months post illness. On average, employed case-patients missed 9 days of work in the 12 months following their disease onset, which resulted in an estimated cost of $15.5 million. Estimated direct healthcare costs were $2.9 million for the first 2 months and $0.6 million for 3-12 months following the outbreak. The total estimated cost associated with the outbreak ranged from $14.8 to $33.4 million (approximately 1% of gross domestic product), depending on the proportion of the population infected with symptomatic disease, degree of underreporting, and proportion of cases who were employed. The estimated YLDs associated with long-term sequelae from the CHIKV outbreak in the USVI ranged from 599-1,322. These findings highlight the significant economic burden of the recent CHIKV outbreak in the USVI and will aid policy-makers in making informed decisions about prevention and control measures for inevitable, future CHIKV outbreaks.


PLoS Negl Trop Dis


Feldstein LR,Ellis EM,Rowhani-Rahbar A,Hennessey MJ,Staples JE,Halloran ME,Weaver MR




Has Abstract


2019-07-19 00:00:00














  • Miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil: a randomized and controlled trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is treated with parenteral drugs for decades with decreasing rate cures. Miltefosine is an oral medication with anti-leishmania activity and may increase the cure rates and improve compliance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:This study is a randomized, open-label, controlled clin...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Machado PR,Ampuero J,Guimarães LH,Villasboas L,Rocha AT,Schriefer A,Sousa RS,Talhari A,Penna G,Carvalho EM

    更新日期:2010-12-21 00:00:00

  • Characterization of a Trichinella spiralis putative serine protease. Study of its potential as sero-diagnostic tool.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Trichinellosis is a serious zoonositc parasitosis worldwide. Because its clinical manifestations aren't specific, the diagnosis of trichinellosis is not easy to be made. Trichinella spiralis muscle larva (ML) excretory-secretory (ES) antigens are the most widely applied diagnostic antigens for human trichine...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun GG,Song YY,Jiang P,Ren HN,Yan SW,Han Y,Liu RD,Zhang X,Wang ZQ,Cui J

    更新日期:2018-05-14 00:00:00

  • TLR9 activation dampens the early inflammatory response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, impacting host survival.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Thus, understanding the characteristics of the protective immune response to P. brasiliensis is of interest, as it may reveal targets for disease control. The initiation of the immune res...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Menino JF,Saraiva M,Gomes-Alves AG,Lobo-Silva D,Sturme M,Gomes-Rezende J,Saraiva AL,Goldman GH,Cunha C,Carvalho A,Romani L,Pedrosa J,Castro AG,Rodrigues F

    更新日期:2013-07-25 00:00:00

  • Incremental cost of conducting population-based prevalence surveys for a neglected tropical disease: the example of trachoma in 8 national programs.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Trachoma prevalence surveys provide the evidence base for district and community-wide implementation of the SAFE strategy, and are used to evaluate the impact of trachoma control interventions. An economic analysis was performed to estimate the cost of trachoma prevalence surveys conducted between 2006 and 2...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen C,Cromwell EA,King JD,Mosher A,Harding-Esch EM,Ngondi JM,Emerson PM

    更新日期:2011-03-08 00:00:00

  • Hazara virus and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus show a different pattern of entry in fully-polarized Caco-2 cell line.

    abstract::Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) and Hazara virus (HAZV) belong to the same viral serotype and family. HAZV has lately been used as a model system and surrogate to CCHFV. However, virus-host cell interaction and level of pathogenicity for these viruses are not well investigated nor compared. In this study...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Monteil V,Salata C,Appelberg S,Mirazimi A

    更新日期:2020-11-24 00:00:00

  • Anopheles gambiae antiviral immune response to systemic O'nyong-nyong infection.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Mosquito-borne viral diseases cause significant burden in much of the developing world. Although host-virus interactions have been studied extensively in the vertebrate host, little is known about mosquito responses to viral infection. In contrast to mosquitoes of the Aedes and Culex genera, Anopheles gambia...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Waldock J,Olson KE,Christophides GK

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • The incubation period of Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection).

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Buruli Ulcer (BU) is caused by the environmental microbe Mycobacterium ulcerans. Despite unclear transmission, contact with a BU endemic region is the key known risk factor. In Victoria, Australia, where endemic areas have been carefully mapped, we aimed to estimate the Incubation Period (IP) of BU by inte...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trubiano JA,Lavender CJ,Fyfe JA,Bittmann S,Johnson PD

    更新日期:2013-10-03 00:00:00

  • An in-depth report of quality control on Kato-Katz and data entry in four clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of albendazole against soil-transmitted helminth infections.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Efforts to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have intensified over the past decade. Field-survey data on STH prevalence, infection intensity and drug efficacy is necessary to guide the implementation of control programs and should be of the best possible quality. METHODOLOGY:During four cli...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vlaminck J,Cools P,Albonico M,Ame S,Ayana M,Dana D,Keiser J,Matoso LF,Montresor A,Mekonnen Z,Corrêa-Oliveira R,Pinto SA,Sayasone S,Vercruysse J,Levecke B

    更新日期:2020-09-21 00:00:00

  • Multiple Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains are associated with disease outbreaks in Sudan, 2008-2009.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) activity has recently been detected in the Kordufan region of Sudan. Since 2008, several sporadic cases and nosocomial outbreaks associated with high case-fatality have been reported in villages and rural hospitals in the region. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:In the present study...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aradaib IE,Erickson BR,Karsany MS,Khristova ML,Elageb RM,Mohamed ME,Nichol ST

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • QTL mapping of genome regions controlling temephos resistance in larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever flaviviruses. Temephos is an organophosphate insecticide used globally to suppress Ae. aegypti larval populations but resistance has evolved in many locations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) control...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reyes-Solis Gdel C,Saavedra-Rodriguez K,Suarez AF,Black WC 4th

    更新日期:2014-10-16 00:00:00

  • Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Sex-Biased Expressed Genes Reveals Discrete Biological and Physiological Features of Male and Female Schistosoma japonicum.

    abstract::Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological pro...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cai P,Liu S,Piao X,Hou N,Gobert GN,McManus DP,Chen Q

    更新日期:2016-04-29 00:00:00

  • Global Spread of Human Chromoblastomycosis Is Driven by Recombinant Cladophialophora carrionii and Predominantly Clonal Fonsecaea Species.

    abstract::Global distribution patterns of Cladophialophora carrionii, agent of human chromoblastomycosis in arid climates of Africa, Asia, Australia, Central-and South-America, were compared with similar data of the vicarious Fonsecaea spp., agents of the disease in tropical rain forests. Population diversities among 73 C. carr...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deng S,Tsui CK,Gerrits van den Ende AH,Yang L,Najafzadeh MJ,Badali H,Li R,Hagen F,Meis JF,Sun J,Dolatabadi S,Papierok B,Pan W,de Hoog GS,Liao W

    更新日期:2015-10-23 00:00:00

  • Landscape changes influence the occurrence of the melioidosis bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei in soil in northern Australia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The soil-dwelling saprophyte bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals in southeast Asia and northern Australia. Despite the detection of B. pseudomallei in various soil and water samples from endemic areas, the environmental habitat of B. pseudom...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaestli M,Mayo M,Harrington G,Ward L,Watt F,Hill JV,Cheng AC,Currie BJ

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Correction: The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs.

    abstract::[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004223.]. ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 已发布勘误


    authors: Wardrop NA,Thomas LF,Atkinson PM,de Glanville WA,Cook EA,Wamae CN,Gabriël S,Dorny P,Harrison LJ,Fèvre EM

    更新日期:2016-01-13 00:00:00

  • Bacterial community composition in the salivary glands of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is transmitted through triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). In the last year, many studies of triatomine gut microbiota have outlined its potential role in modulating vector competence. However, little is known about the microbiota present in the...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lima MS,Laport MS,Lorosa ES,Jurberg J,Dos Santos KRN,da Silva Neto MAC,Rachid CTCDC,Atella GC

    更新日期:2018-09-13 00:00:00

  • Environmental methods for dengue vector control - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Vector control remains the primary method to prevent dengue infections. Environmental interventions represent sustainable and safe methods as there are limited risks of environmental contamination and toxicity. The objective of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectivene...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Buhler C,Winkler V,Runge-Ranzinger S,Boyce R,Horstick O

    更新日期:2019-07-11 00:00:00

  • Animal reservoir, natural and socioeconomic variations and the transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Chenzhou, China, 2006-2010.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:China has the highest incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) worldwide. Reported cases account for 90% of the total number of global cases. By 2010, approximately 1.4 million HFRS cases had been reported in China. This study aimed to explore the effect of the rodent reservoir, and natural ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiao H,Tian HY,Gao LD,Liu HN,Duan LS,Basta N,Cazelles B,Li XJ,Lin XL,Wu HW,Chen BY,Yang HS,Xu B,Grenfell B

    更新日期:2014-01-09 00:00:00

  • Evolutionary history and phylogeography of rabies viruses associated with outbreaks in Trinidad.

    abstract::Bat rabies is an emerging disease of public health significance in the Americas. The Caribbean island of Trinidad experiences periodic outbreaks within the livestock population. We performed molecular characterisation of Trinidad rabies virus (RABV) and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to investigate the exten...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seetahal JF,Velasco-Villa A,Allicock OM,Adesiyun AA,Bissessar J,Amour K,Phillip-Hosein A,Marston DA,McElhinney LM,Shi M,Wharwood CA,Fooks AR,Carrington CV

    更新日期:2013-08-22 00:00:00

  • Risk of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in People with Different Exposures to Wastewater and Fecal Sludge in Kampala, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There are health risks associated with wastewater and fecal sludge management and use, but little is known about the magnitude, particularly in rapidly growing urban settings of low- and middle-income countries. We assessed the point-prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasite infections in people wit...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fuhrimann S,Winkler MS,Kabatereine NB,Tukahebwa EM,Halage AA,Rutebemberwa E,Medlicott K,Schindler C,Utzinger J,Cissé G

    更新日期:2016-03-03 00:00:00

  • Prescription of concomitant medications in patients treated with Nifurtimox Eflornithine Combination Therapy (NECT) for T.b. gambiense second stage sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Nifurtimox eflornithine combination therapy (NECT) to treat human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly called sleeping sickness, was added to the World Health Organisation's (WHO) Essential Medicines List in 2009 and to the Paediatric List in 2012. NECT was further tested and documented in a phase IIIb cl...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Kuemmerle A,Schmid C,Kande V,Mutombo W,Ilunga M,Lumpungu I,Mutanda S,Nganzobo P,Ngolo D,Kisala M,Valverde Mordt O

    更新日期:2020-01-27 00:00:00

  • Using Mobile Health (mHealth) and geospatial mapping technology in a mass campaign for reactive oral cholera vaccination in rural Haiti.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In mass vaccination campaigns, large volumes of data must be managed efficiently and accurately. In a reactive oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaign in rural Haiti during an ongoing epidemic, we used a mobile health (mHealth) system to manage data on 50,000 participants in two isolated communities. METHOD...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Teng JE,Thomson DR,Lascher JS,Raymond M,Ivers LC

    更新日期:2014-07-31 00:00:00

  • Elimination of neglected diseases in latin america and the Caribbean: a mapping of selected diseases.

    abstract::In Latin America and the Caribbean, around 195 million people live in poverty, a situation that increases the burden of some infectious diseases. Neglected diseases, in particular, are often restricted to poor, marginalized sections of the population. Tools exist to combat these diseases, making it imperative to work ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schneider MC,Aguilera XP,Barbosa da Silva Junior J,Ault SK,Najera P,Martinez J,Requejo R,Nicholls RS,Yadon Z,Silva JC,Leanes LF,Periago MR

    更新日期:2011-02-15 00:00:00

  • Invariant NKT cell response to dengue virus infection in human.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Dengue viral infection is a global health threat without vaccine or specific treatment. The clinical outcome varies from asymptomatic, mild dengue fever (DF) to severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). While adaptive immune responses were found to be detrimental in the dengue pathogenesis, the roles of earlier...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matangkasombut P,Chan-In W,Opasawaschai A,Pongchaikul P,Tangthawornchaikul N,Vasanawathana S,Limpitikul W,Malasit P,Duangchinda T,Screaton G,Mongkolsapaya J

    更新日期:2014-06-19 00:00:00

  • Sarcocystis nesbitti causes acute, relapsing febrile myositis with a high attack rate: description of a large outbreak of muscular sarcocystosis in Pangkor Island, Malaysia, 2012.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:From the 17th to 19th January 2012, a group of 92 college students and teachers attended a retreat in a hotel located on Pangkor Island, off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Following the onset of symptoms in many participants who presented to our institute, an investigation was undertaken which ultima...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Italiano CM,Wong KT,AbuBakar S,Lau YL,Ramli N,Syed Omar SF,Kahar Bador M,Tan CT

    更新日期:2014-05-22 00:00:00

  • Chagas disease, migration and community settlement patterns in Arequipa, Peru.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chagas disease is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Americas. Vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease has been historically rare in urban settings. However, in marginal communities near the city of Arequipa, Peru, urban transmission cycles have become established. We examined th...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bayer AM,Hunter GC,Gilman RH,Cornejo Del Carpio JG,Naquira C,Bern C,Levy MZ

    更新日期:2009-12-15 00:00:00

  • Diverse effects on mitochondrial and nuclear functions elicited by drugs and genetic knockdowns in bloodstream stage Trypanosoma brucei.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The options for treating the fatal disease human African trypanosomiasis are limited to a few drugs that are toxic or facing increasing resistance. New drugs that kill the causative agents, subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei, are therefore urgently needed. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms that lea...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Worthen C,Jensen BC,Parsons M

    更新日期:2010-05-04 00:00:00

  • Prevalence and risk factors for echinococcal infection in a rural area of northern Chile: a household-based cross-sectional study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of human and canine echinococcosis as well as the associated risk factors in a rural area of the Limarí province in northern Chile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:A cros...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Acosta-Jamett G,Weitzel T,Boufana B,Adones C,Bahamonde A,Abarca K,Craig PS,Reiter-Owona I

    更新日期:2014-08-28 00:00:00

  • Tissue- and sex-specific lipidomic analysis of Schistosoma mansoni using high-resolution atmospheric pressure scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    abstract::Schistosomes are human pathogens causing the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis, which occurs worldwide in (sub-)tropical regions. This infectious disease is often associated with poverty, and more than 700 million people are at risk of infection. Exploitation of novel habitats and limited therapeutic options ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kadesch P,Quack T,Gerbig S,Grevelding CG,Spengler B

    更新日期:2020-05-13 00:00:00

  • The Vaccination of 35,000 Dogs in 20 Working Days Using Combined Static Point and Door-to-Door Methods in Blantyre, Malawi.

    abstract::An estimated 60,000 people die of rabies annually. The vast majority of cases of human rabies develop following a bite from an infected dog. Rabies can be controlled in both human and canine populations through widespread vaccination of dogs. Rabies is particularly problematic in Malawi, costing the country an estimat...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibson AD,Handel IG,Shervell K,Roux T,Mayer D,Muyila S,Maruwo GB,Nkhulungo EM,Foster RA,Chikungwa P,Chimera B,Bronsvoort BM,Mellanby RJ,Gamble L

    更新日期:2016-07-14 00:00:00

  • Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51 inhibitor derived from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis screen hit.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The two front-line drugs for chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infections are limited by adverse side-effects and declining efficacy. One potential new target for Chagas' disease chemotherapy is sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51), a cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in biosynthesis of membrane sterols. METHODOLOGY/PR...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen CK,Doyle PS,Yermalitskaya LV,Mackey ZB,Ang KK,McKerrow JH,Podust LM

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00