Inflammation and Lymphatic Function.

Abstract:

:The lymphatic vasculature plays a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory response by influencing drainage of extravasated fluid, inflammatory mediators, and leukocytes. Lymphatic vessels undergo pronounced enlargement in inflamed tissue and display increased leakiness, indicating reduced functionality. Interfering with lymphatic expansion by blocking the vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) signaling axis exacerbates inflammation in a variety of disease models, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis and skin inflammation. In contrast, stimulation of the lymphatic vasculature, e.g., by transgenic or viral overexpression as well as local injections of VEGF-C, has been shown to reduce inflammation severity in models of rheumatoid arthritis, skin inflammation, and IBD. Strikingly, the induced expansion of the lymphatic vasculature improves lymphatic function as assessed by the drainage of dyes, fluorescent tracers or inflammatory cells and labeled antigens. The drainage performance of lymphatic vessels is influenced by vascular permeability and pumping activity, which are influenced by VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling as well as several inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and nitric oxide. Considering the beneficial effects of lymphatic activation in inflammation, administration of pro-lymphangiogenic factors like VEGF-C, preferably in a targeted, inflammation site-specific fashion, represents a promising therapeutic approach in the setting of inflammatory pathologies.

journal_name

Front Immunol

journal_title

Frontiers in immunology

authors

Schwager S,Detmar M

doi

10.3389/fimmu.2019.00308

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2019-02-26 00:00:00

pages

308

issn

1664-3224

journal_volume

10

pub_type

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