Public Facility Utility and Third-Hand Smoking Exposure without First and Second-Hand Smoking According to Urinary Cotinine Level.

Abstract:

:Third-hand smoke (THS) causes pathological changes in the liver, lungs, and skin. THS exposure can be ubiquitous, chronic, and unconscious. However, little is known about THS exposure in public facilities and its susceptible population. This paper aimed to identify which public facilities and socio-demographic groups were especially vulnerable to THS. Data from 1360 adults obtained from Korean National Environmental Health Survey I (2009⁻2011) were analyzed. To study the sole effect of THS, we restricted the study population to those participants who had never smoked and who had no exposure to second-hand smoke. The assessed variables included the type and frequency of public transportation, frequency of use of 12 different public facilities, and 8 socio-demographic factors. Urinary cotinine was used as a biomarker. T-tests and analysis of variance were used for univariate analyses, while generalized linear regression was used for multivariate analysis. Frequent use of public transportation, bars, internet cafés, and participants with low levels of education, divorced or bereaved, living in multi-unit houses, and with smokers within the family were associated with significantly high urinary cotinine levels. These findings indicate that the frequent use of public transportation, certain public facilities and certain socio-demographic factors can result in high THS exposure.

authors

Moon SY,Kim TW,Kim YJ,Kim Y,Kim SY,Kang D

doi

10.3390/ijerph16050855

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2019-03-08 00:00:00

issue

5

eissn

1661-7827

issn

1660-4601

pii

ijerph16050855

journal_volume

16

pub_type

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