Combining 25-Hydroxycholesterol with an HIV Fusion Inhibitor Peptide: Interaction with Biomembrane Model Systems and Human Blood Cells.

Abstract:

:The fusion between the viral and the target cell membrane is a crucial step in the life cycle of enveloped viruses. The blocking of this process is a well-known therapeutic approach that led to the development of the fusion inhibitor peptide enfuvirtide, clinically used against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. Despite this significant advance on viral treatment, the appearance of resistance has limited its clinical use. Such a limitation has led to the development of other fusion inhibitor peptides, such as C34, that present the same structural domain as enfuvirtide (heptad repeat sequence) but have different functional domains (pocket-binding domain in the case of C34 and lipid-binding domain in the case of enfuvirtide). Recently, the antiviral properties of 25-hydroxycholesterol were demonstrated, which boosted the interest in this oxysterol. The combination of two distinct antiviral molecules, C34 and 25-hydroxycholesterol, may help to suppress the emergence of resistant viruses. In this work, we characterized the interaction of the C34-25-hydroxycholesterol conjugate with biomembrane model systems and human blood cells. Lipid vesicles and monolayers with defined lipid compositions were used as biomembrane model systems. The conjugate interacts preferentially with membranes rich in sphingomyelin (a lipid enriched in lipid rafts) and presents a poor partition to membranes composed solely of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. We hypothesize that cholesterol causes a repulsive effect that is overcome in the presence of sphingomyelin. Importantly, the peptide shows a preference for human peripheral blood mononuclear cells relative to erythrocytes, which shows its potential to target CD4+ cells. Antiviral activity results against different wild-type and drug-resistant HIV strains further demonstrated the potential of C34-HC as a good candidate for future studies.

journal_name

ACS Infect Dis

journal_title

ACS infectious diseases

authors

Gomes B,Sanna G,Madeddu S,Hollmann A,Santos NC

doi

10.1021/acsinfecdis.8b00321

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2019-04-12 00:00:00

pages

582-591

issue

4

issn

2373-8227

journal_volume

5

pub_type

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