Long term outcomes and prognostics of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV infected patients with use of pentamidine as secondary prophylaxis based on CD4 level: a prospective cohort study in Ethiopia.


BACKGROUND:The long-term treatment outcome of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients with HIV co-infection is complicated by a high rate of relapse, especially when the CD4 count is low. Although use of secondary prophylaxis is recommended, it is not routinely practiced and data on its effectiveness and safety are limited. METHODS:A prospective cohort study was conducted in Northwest Ethiopia from August 2014 to August 2017 (NCT02011958). HIV-VL patients were followed for up to 12 months. Patients with CD4 cell counts below 200/μL at the end of VL treatment received pentamidine prophylaxis starting one month after parasitological cure, while those with CD4 count ≥200 cells/μL were followed without secondary prophylaxis. Compliance, safety and relapse-free survival, using Kaplan-Meier analysis methods to account for variable time at risk, were summarised. Risk factors for relapse or death were analysed. RESULTS:Fifty-four HIV patients were followed. The probability of relapse-free survival at one year was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35-63%): 53% (30-71%) in 22 patients with CD4 ≥200 cells/μL without pentamidine prophylaxis and 46% (26-63%) in 29 with CD4 <200 cells/μL who started pentamidine. Three patients with CD4 <200 cells/μL did not start pentamidine. Amongst those with CD4 ≥200 cells/μL, VL relapse was an independent risk factor for subsequent relapse or death (adjusted rate ratio: 5.42, 95% CI: 1.1-25.8). Except for one case of renal failure which was considered possibly related to pentamidine, there were no drug-related safety concerns. CONCLUSION:The relapse-free survival rate for VL patients with HIV was low. Relapse-free survival of patients with CD4 count <200cells/μL given pentamidine secondary prophylaxis appeared to be comparable to patients with a CD4 count ≥200 cells/μL not given prophylaxis. Patients with relapsed VL are at higher risk for subsequent relapse and should be considered a priority for secondary prophylaxis, irrespective of their CD4 count.


PLoS Negl Trop Dis


Diro E,Edwards T,Ritmeijer K,Fikre H,Abongomera C,Kibret A,Bardonneau C,Soipei P,Mutinda B,Omollo R,van Griensven J,Zijlstra EE,Wasunna M,Alves F,Alvar J,Hailu A,Alexander N,Blesson S




Has Abstract


2019-02-21 00:00:00














  • Baseline patterns of infection in regions of Benin, Malawi and India seeking to interrupt transmission of soil transmitted helminths (STH) in the DeWorm3 trial.

    abstract::Global efforts to control morbidity associated with soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH) have focused largely on the targeted treatment of high-risk groups, including children and pregnant women. However, it is not clear when such programs can be discontinued and there are concerns about the sustainability of cu...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: DeWorm3 Trials Team.

    更新日期:2020-11-02 00:00:00

  • Time series analysis of onchocerciasis data from Mexico: a trend towards elimination.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In Latin America, there are 13 geographically isolated endemic foci distributed among Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil and Ecuador. The communities of the three endemic foci found within Mexico have been receiving ivermectin treatment since 1989. In this study, we predicted the trend of occurre...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lara-Ramírez EE,Rodríguez-Pérez MA,Pérez-Rodríguez MA,Adeleke MA,Orozco-Algarra ME,Arrendondo-Jiménez JI,Guo X

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular xenomonitoring as a post-MDA surveillance tool for global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: Field validation in an evaluation unit in India.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by the year 2020. As of 2017, 67 of the 72 endemic countries have implemented annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA) for interrupting LF transmission. Transmission Assessment Survey (TAS) is the recommended protocol to evaluate the impact of MDA and to dec...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Subramanian S,Jambulingam P,Krishnamoorthy K,Sivagnaname N,Sadanandane C,Vasuki V,Palaniswamy C,Vijayakumar B,Srividya A,Raju HKK

    更新日期:2020-01-24 00:00:00

  • Exploratory space-time analyses of Rift Valley Fever in South Africa in 2008-2011.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic arbovirosis for which the primary hosts are domestic livestock (cattle, sheep and goats). RVF was first described in South Africa in 1950-1951. Mechanisms for short and long distance transmission have been hypothesised, but there is little supporting evidence. Here we de...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Métras R,Porphyre T,Pfeiffer DU,Kemp A,Thompson PN,Collins LM,White RG

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Development of risk reduction behavioral counseling for Ebola virus disease survivors enrolled in the Sierra Leone Ebola Virus Persistence Study, 2015-2016.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:During the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic, the public health community had concerns that sexual transmission of the Ebola virus (EBOV) from EVD survivors was a risk, due to EBOV persistence in body fluids of EVD survivors, particularly semen. The Sierra Leone Ebola Virus Persistence...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abad N,Malik T,Ariyarajah A,Ongpin P,Hogben M,McDonald SLR,Marrinan J,Massaquoi T,Thorson A,Ervin E,Bernstein K,Ross C,Liu WJ,Kroeger K,Durski KN,Broutet N,Knust B,Deen GF,Sierra Leone Ebola Virus Persistence Study Gr

    更新日期:2017-09-11 00:00:00

  • Multi-disease data management system platform for vector-borne diseases.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Emerging information technologies present new opportunities to reduce the burden of malaria, dengue and other infectious diseases. For example, use of a data management system software package can help disease control programs to better manage and analyze their data, and thus enhances their ability to carry ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eisen L,Coleman M,Lozano-Fuentes S,McEachen N,Orlans M,Coleman M

    更新日期:2011-03-29 00:00:00

  • An aspartic protease of the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei is involved in the digestion of host skin and blood macromolecules.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functi...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mahmood W,Viberg LT,Fischer K,Walton SF,Holt DC

    更新日期:2013-11-07 00:00:00

  • Estimated incidence and Prevalence of noma in north central Nigeria, 2010-2018: A retrospective study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Noma is a spreading and fulminant disease believed to be native to Sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade and associated with low socioeconomic status of citizens of the region. Within this noma belt, most epidemiological reports regarding the disease have emanated from the north western region of Nigeria. ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bello SA,Adeoye JA,Oketade I,Akadiri OA

    更新日期:2019-07-22 00:00:00

  • Rapid mapping of urinary schistosomiasis: An appraisal of the diagnostic efficacy of some questionnaire-based indices among high school students in Katsina State, northwestern Nigeria.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In sub-Saharan Africa, over 200 million individuals are estimated to be infected with urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis. In a bid to lay a foundation for effective future control programme, this study was carried out with the aim of assessing the diagnostic efficacy of some questionnaire-based rapid ass...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Atalabi TE,Adubi TO,Lawal U

    更新日期:2017-04-03 00:00:00

  • Performance and safety of praziquantel for treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis in infants and preschool children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In 2012 the WHO formally recognised that infants and preschool children are at significant risk of schistosomiasis and qualify for treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). Targeted surveys determining both the performance and safety of this drug are now needed in endemic areas. We have formally assessed parasitolo...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Sousa-Figueiredo JC,Betson M,Atuhaire A,Arinaitwe M,Navaratnam AM,Kabatereine NB,Bickle Q,Stothard JR

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Regulatory T cells enhance susceptibility to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection independent of mouse genetic background.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:BALB/c mice are highly susceptible while C57BL/6 are relatively resistant to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to regulate the pathogenesis of experimental T. congolense infection, their exact role remains controversial. We wished to determine ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Okwor I,Onyilagha C,Kuriakose S,Mou Z,Jia P,Uzonna JE

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Geographic variation in access to dog-bite care in Pakistan and risk of dog-bite exposure in Karachi: prospective surveillance using a low-cost mobile phone system.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Dog-bites and rabies are under-reported in developing countries such as Pakistan and there is a poor understanding of the disease burden. We prospectively collected data utilizing mobile phones for dog-bite and rabies surveillance across nine emergency rooms (ER) in Pakistan, recording patient health-seeking...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zaidi SM,Labrique AB,Khowaja S,Lotia-Farrukh I,Irani J,Salahuddin N,Khan AJ

    更新日期:2013-12-12 00:00:00

  • Female-specific flightless (fsRIDL) phenotype for control of Aedes albopictus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, is a vector of several arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya, and is also a significant nuisance mosquito. It is one of the most invasive of mosquitoes with a relentlessly increasing geographic distribution. Conventional control methods have so far failed to...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Labbé GM,Scaife S,Morgan SA,Curtis ZH,Alphey L

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Galectin-3, histone deacetylases, and Hedgehog signaling: Possible convergent targets in schistosomiasis-induced liver fibrosis.

    abstract::Schistosomiasis affects approximately 240 million people in the world. Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the liver induce periportal fibrosis and hepatic failure driven by monocyte recruitment and macrophage activation, resulting in robust Th2 response. Here, we suggested a possible involvement of Galectin-3 (Gal-3), histon...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: de Oliveira FL,Carneiro K,Brito JM,Cabanel M,Pereira JX,Paiva LA,Syn W,Henderson NC,El-Cheikh MC

    更新日期:2017-02-23 00:00:00

  • Ticks as potential vectors of Mycobacterium leprae: Use of tick cell lines to culture the bacilli and generate transgenic strains.

    abstract::Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and frequently resulting in irreversible deformities and disabilities. Ticks play an important role in infectious disease transmission due to their low host specificity, worldwide distribution, and the biological ability to support transovarial transmissi...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ferreira JDS,Souza Oliveira DA,Santos JP,Ribeiro CCDU,Baêta BA,Teixeira RC,Neumann ADS,Rosa PS,Pessolani MCV,Moraes MO,Bechara GH,de Oliveira PL,Sorgine MHF,Suffys PN,Fontes ANB,Bell-Sakyi L,Fonseca AH,Lara FA

    更新日期:2018-12-19 00:00:00

  • Correction: Metformin exhibits preventive and therapeutic efficacy against experimental cystic echinococcosis.

    abstract::[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005370.]. ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 已发布勘误


    authors: Loos JA,Dávila VA,Rodriguez Rodrigues C,Petrigh R,Zoppi JA,Crocenzi FA,Cumino AC

    更新日期:2017-03-22 00:00:00

  • Phylogeography of Japanese encephalitis virus: genotype is associated with climate.

    abstract::The circulation of vector-borne zoonotic viruses is largely determined by the overlap in the geographical distributions of virus-competent vectors and reservoir hosts. What is less clear are the factors influencing the distribution of virus-specific lineages. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most important eti...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schuh AJ,Ward MJ,Brown AJ,Barrett AD

    更新日期:2013-08-29 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of a novel West Nile virus transmission control strategy that targets Culex tarsalis with endectocide-containing blood meals.

    abstract::Control of arbovirus transmission remains focused on vector control through application of insecticides directly to the environment. However, these insecticide applications are often reactive interventions that can be poorly-targeted, inadequate for localized control during outbreaks, and opposed due to environmental ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nguyen C,Gray M,Burton TA,Foy SL,Foster JR,Gendernalik AL,Rückert C,Alout H,Young MC,Boze B,Ebel GD,Clapsaddle B,Foy BD

    更新日期:2019-03-07 00:00:00

  • How community engagement strategies shape participation in mass drug administration programmes for lymphatic filariasis: The case of Luangwa District, Zambia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The success of the global strategy to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) through mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns is dependent on meeting high coverage levels over long periods of time. Community engagement plays a critical role in driving coverage and involvement of local communities in MDA for LF....

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silumbwe A,Halwindi H,Zulu JM

    更新日期:2019-11-27 00:00:00

  • Loss of cytoplasmic incompatibility in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti under field conditions.

    abstract::Wolbachia bacteria are now being introduced into Aedes aegypti mosquito populations for dengue control. When Wolbachia infections are at a high frequency, they influence the local transmission of dengue by direct virus blocking as well as deleterious effects on vector mosquito populations. However, the effectiveness o...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ross PA,Ritchie SA,Axford JK,Hoffmann AA

    更新日期:2019-04-19 00:00:00

  • Identification of Trypanocidal Activity for Known Clinical Compounds Using a New Trypanosoma cruzi Hit-Discovery Screening Cascade.

    abstract::Chagas disease is a significant health problem in Latin America and the available treatments have significant issues in terms of toxicity and efficacy. There is thus an urgent need to develop new treatments either via a repurposing strategy or through the development of new chemical entities. A key first step is the i...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Rycker M,Thomas J,Riley J,Brough SJ,Miles TJ,Gray DW

    更新日期:2016-04-15 00:00:00

  • RNA Aptamer That Specifically Binds to Mycolactone and Serves as a Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosis of Buruli Ulcer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Buruli ulcer (BU) is a subcutaneous skin disease listed among the neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO). Early case detection and management is very important to reduce morbidity and the accompanied characteristic disfiguring nature of BU. Since diagnosis based on clinical eviden...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sakyi SA,Aboagye SY,Otchere ID,Liao AM,Caltagirone TG,Yeboah-Manu D

    更新日期:2016-10-24 00:00:00

  • Molecular characterization of tsetse's proboscis and its response to Trypanosoma congolense infection.

    abstract::Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) transmit parasitic African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma spp.), including Trypanosoma congolense, which causes animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT). AAT detrimentally affects agricultural activities in sub-Saharan Africa and has negative impacts on the livelihood and nutrient availability for ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Awuoche EO,Weiss BL,Vigneron A,Mireji PO,Aksoy E,Nyambega B,Attardo GM,Wu Y,O'Neill M,Murilla G,Aksoy S

    更新日期:2017-11-20 00:00:00

  • Morbidity management and surveillance of lymphatic filariasis disease and acute dermatolymphangioadenitis attacks using a mobile phone-based tool by community health volunteers in Ghana.

    abstract::Morbidity burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) relies on the information from the Mass Drug Administration (MDA) programme where Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) passively report cases identified. Consequently, the exact prevalence of morbidity cases is not always accurate. The use of mobile phone technology to repor...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Debrah LB,Mohammed A,Osei-Mensah J,Mubarik Y,Agbenyega O,Ayisi-Boateng NK,Pfarr K,Kuehlwein JM,Klarmann-Schulz U,Hoerauf A,Debrah AY

    更新日期:2020-11-12 00:00:00

  • Detection and distribution of Sca autotransporter protein antigens in diverse isolates of Orientia tsutsugamushi.

    abstract::Orientia tsutsugamushi (Ots) frequently causes severe scrub typhus infections in the Asia-Pacific region. Korean investigators have demonstrated that Ots encodes five different autotransporter domain (ATD) proteins (ScaA-ScaE). ScaA functions as an adhesin and confers protective immunity in a lethal mouse model of Ots...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koralur MC,Ramaiah A,Dasch GA

    更新日期:2018-09-20 00:00:00

  • Performance of a rapid diagnostic test for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in African children admitted to hospital with diarrhea.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that causes mild to severe diarrhoeal disease in humans. To date, several commercial companies have developed rapid immunoassays for the detection of Cryptosporidium infection. However, the challenge is to identify an accurate, simple and rapid diagnostic tool for the ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Manouana GP,Lorenz E,Mbong Ngwese M,Nguema Moure PA,Maiga Ascofaré O,Akenten CW,Amuasi J,Rakotozandrindrainy N,Rakotozandrindrainy R,Mbwana J,Lusingu J,Byrne N,Melhem S,Zinsou JF,Adegbite RB,Hogan B,Winter D,May J,Kre

    更新日期:2020-07-13 00:00:00

  • Leprosy among schoolchildren in the Amazon region: A cross-sectional study of active search and possible source of infection by contact tracing.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The high rate of leprosy cases among children under 15 years of age in Brazil indicates ongoing transmission within the community. The identification of the new leprosy cases among contacts can help identify the source of infection and interrupt the transmission chain. This study aims to determine the detect...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pedrosa VL,Dias LC,Galban E,Leturiondo A,Palheta J Jr,Santos M,Moraes MO,Talhari C

    更新日期:2018-02-26 00:00:00

  • Dynamics of serological responses to defined recombinant proteins during Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice before and after the treatment with praziquantel.

    abstract::To eliminate schistosomiasis, appropriate diagnostic tests are required to monitor its prevalence and transmission, especially in the settings with low endemicity resulting from the consecutive mass drug administration. Antibodies that react with either crude soluble schistosome egg antigens or soluble worm antigen pr...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mohammed ES,Nakamura R,Kalenda YD,Deloer S,Moriyasu T,Tanaka M,Fujii Y,Kaneko S,Hirayama K,Ibrahim AI,El-Seify MA,Metwally AM,Hamano S

    更新日期:2020-09-11 00:00:00

  • Misconceptions and paradoxes in soil-transmitted helminthiases control as a public health problem.

    abstract::Soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) constitute a public health problem that requires immediate action to resolve the morbidity of those harboring the parasites in their guts, to prevent infection in all those at risk, and to interrupt the vicious circle of poverty and disease in the affected communities, structural ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Krolewiecki AJ

    更新日期:2018-09-13 00:00:00

  • A target-based high throughput screen yields Trypanosoma brucei hexokinase small molecule inhibitors with antiparasitic activity.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei utilizes glycolysis exclusively for ATP production during infection of the mammalian host. The first step in this metabolic pathway is mediated by hexokinase (TbHK), an enzyme essential to the parasite that transfers the gamma-phospho of ATP to a hexose. Here we des...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharlow ER,Lyda TA,Dodson HC,Mustata G,Morris MT,Leimgruber SS,Lee KH,Kashiwada Y,Close D,Lazo JS,Morris JC

    更新日期:2010-04-13 00:00:00