Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells and T-Regulatory Cells at the Clinical Trials Crossroad for the Treatment of Autoimmune Disease; Emphasis on Type 1 Diabetes Therapy.

Abstract:

:Tolerogenic dendritic cells and T-regulatory cells are two immune cell populations with the potential to prevent the onset of clinical stage type 1 diabetes, and manage the beginning of underlying autoimmunity, at the time-at-onset and onwards. Initial phase I trials demonstrated that the administration of a number of these cell populations, generated ex vivo from peripheral blood leukocytes, was safe. Outcomes of some of these trials also suggested some level of autoimmunity regulation, by the increase in the numbers of regulatory cells at different points in a network of immune regulation in vivo. As these cell populations come to the cusp of pivotal phase II efficacy trials, a number of questions still need to be addressed. At least one mechanism of action needs to be verified as operational, and through this mechanism biomarkers predictive of the underlying autoimmunity need to be identified. Efficacy in the regulation of the underlying autoimmunity also need to be monitored. At the same time, the absence of a common phenotype core among the different dendritic cell and T-regulatory cell populations, that have completed phase I and early phase II trials, necessitates a better understanding of what makes these cells tolerogenic, especially if a uniform phenotypic core cannot be identified. Finally, the inter-relationship of tolerogenic dendritic cells and T-regulatory cells for survival, induction, and maintenance of a tolerogenic state that manages the underlying diabetes autoimmunity, raises the possibility to co-administer, or even to serially-administer tolerogenic dendritic cells together with T-regulatory cells as a cellular co-therapy, enabling the best possible outcome. This is currently a knowledge gap that this review aims to address.

journal_name

Front Immunol

journal_title

Frontiers in immunology

authors

Phillips BE,Garciafigueroa Y,Engman C,Trucco M,Giannoukakis N

doi

10.3389/fimmu.2019.00148

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2019-02-06 00:00:00

pages

148

issn

1664-3224

journal_volume

10

pub_type

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