Functional Status of Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 Is Modulated by Zinc Binding.

Abstract:

:Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) protein is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and retinal neurons, where it regulates many vital processes such as synaptic transmission. It coordinates three calcium ions by EF-hands 2-4, thereby transducing Ca2+ signals to a wide range of protein targets, including G protein-coupled receptors and their kinases. Here, we demonstrate that NCS-1 also has Zn2+-binding sites, which affect its structural and functional properties upon filling. Fluorescence and circular dichroism experiments reveal the impact of Zn2+ binding on NCS-1 secondary and tertiary structure. According to atomic absorption spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry studies, apo-NCS-1 has two high-affinity (4 × 106 M-1) and one low-affinity (2 × 105 M-1) Zn2+-binding sites, whereas Mg2+-loaded and Ca2+-loaded forms (which dominate under physiological conditions) bind two zinc ions with submicromolar affinity. Metal competition analysis and circular dichroism studies suggest that Zn2+-binding sites of apo- and Mg2+-loaded NCS-1 overlap with functional EF-hands of the protein. Consistently, high Zn2+ concentrations displace Mg2+ from the EF-hands and decrease the stoichiometry of Ca2+ binding. Meanwhile, one of the EF-hands of Zn2+-saturated NCS-1 exhibits a 14-fold higher calcium affinity, which increases the overall calcium sensitivity of the protein. Based on QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations, Zn2+ binding to Ca2+-loaded NCS-1 could occur at EF-hands 2 and 4. The high-affinity zinc binding increases the thermal stability of Ca2+-free NCS-1 and favours the interaction of its Ca2+-loaded form with target proteins, such as dopamine receptor D2R and GRK1. In contrast, low-affinity zinc binding promotes NCS-1 aggregation accompanied by the formation of twisted rope-like structures. Altogether, our findings suggest a complex interplay between magnesium, calcium and zinc binding to NCS-1, leading to the appearance of multiple conformations of the protein, in turn modulating its functional status.

journal_name

Front Mol Neurosci

authors

Tsvetkov PO,Roman AY,Baksheeva VE,Nazipova AA,Shevelyova MP,Vladimirov VI,Buyanova MF,Zinchenko DV,Zamyatnin AA Jr,Devred F,Golovin AV,Permyakov SE,Zernii EY

doi

10.3389/fnmol.2018.00459

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2018-12-14 00:00:00

pages

459

issn

1662-5099

journal_volume

11

pub_type

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