Ticks as potential vectors of Mycobacterium leprae: Use of tick cell lines to culture the bacilli and generate transgenic strains.

Abstract:

:Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and frequently resulting in irreversible deformities and disabilities. Ticks play an important role in infectious disease transmission due to their low host specificity, worldwide distribution, and the biological ability to support transovarial transmission of a wide spectrum of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and protozoa. To investigate a possible role for ticks as vectors of leprosy, we assessed transovarial transmission of M. leprae in artificially-fed adult female Amblyomma sculptum ticks, and infection and growth of M. leprae in tick cell lines. Our results revealed M. leprae RNA and antigens persisting in the midgut and present in the ovaries of adult female A. sculptum at least 2 days after oral infection, and present in their progeny (eggs and larvae), which demonstrates the occurrence of transovarial transmission of this pathogen. Infected tick larvae were able to inoculate viable bacilli during blood-feeding on a rabbit. Moreover, following inoculation with M. leprae, the Ixodes scapularis embryo-derived tick cell line IDE8 supported a detectable increase in the number of bacilli for at least 20 days, presenting a doubling time of approximately 12 days. As far as we know, this is the first in vitro cellular system able to promote growth of M. leprae. Finally, we successfully transformed a clinical M. leprae isolate by inserting the reporter plasmid pCHERRY3; transformed bacteria infected and grew in IDE8 cells over a 2-month period. Taken together, our data not only support the hypothesis that ticks may have the potential to act as a reservoir and/or vector of leprosy, but also suggest the feasibility of technological development of tick cell lines as a tool for large-scale production of M. leprae bacteria, as well as describing for the first time a method for their transformation.

journal_name

PLoS Negl Trop Dis

authors

Ferreira JDS,Souza Oliveira DA,Santos JP,Ribeiro CCDU,Baêta BA,Teixeira RC,Neumann ADS,Rosa PS,Pessolani MCV,Moraes MO,Bechara GH,de Oliveira PL,Sorgine MHF,Suffys PN,Fontes ANB,Bell-Sakyi L,Fonseca AH,Lara FA

doi

10.1371/journal.pntd.0007001

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2018-12-19 00:00:00

pages

e0007001

issue

12

eissn

1935-2727

issn

1935-2735

pii

PNTD-D-18-01009

journal_volume

12

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Comparing models for early warning systems of neglected tropical diseases.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Early warning systems (EWS) are management tools to predict the occurrence of epidemics of infectious diseases. While climate-based EWS have been developed for malaria, no standard protocol to evaluate and compare EWS has been proposed. Additionally, there are several neglected tropical diseases whose transm...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000033

    authors: Chaves LF,Pascual M

    更新日期:2007-10-22 00:00:00

  • Identification of strain-specific B-cell epitopes in Trypanosoma cruzi using genome-scale epitope prediction and high-throughput immunoscreening with peptide arrays.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The factors influencing variation in the clinical forms of Chagas disease have not been elucidated; however, it is likely that the genetics of both the host and the parasite are involved. Several studies have attempted to correlate the T. cruzi strains involved in infection with the clinical forms of the dis...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002524

    authors: Mendes TA,Reis Cunha JL,de Almeida Lourdes R,Rodrigues Luiz GF,Lemos LD,dos Santos AR,da Câmara AC,Galvão LM,Bern C,Gilman RH,Fujiwara RT,Gazzinelli RT,Bartholomeu DC

    更新日期:2013-10-31 00:00:00

  • Effect of immunosuppressants on the parasite load developed in, and immune response to, visceral leishmaniasis: A comparative study in a mouse model.

    abstract::The increasing use of immunosuppressants in areas where visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic has increased the number of people susceptible to developing more severe forms of the disease. Few studies have examined the quality of the immune response in immunosuppressed patients or experimental animals with VL. The pr...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0009126

    authors: Bernardo L,Solana JC,Romero-Kauss A,Sánchez C,Carrillo E,Moreno J

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • A comparative study of leptospirosis and dengue in Thai children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis that is often under-recognized in children and commonly confused with dengue in tropical settings. An enhanced ability to distinguish leptospirosis from dengue in children would guide clinicians and public health personnel in the appropriate use of limited healthcare res...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000111

    authors: Libraty DH,Myint KS,Murray CK,Gibbons RV,Mammen MP,Endy TP,Li W,Vaughn DW,Nisalak A,Kalayanarooj S,Hospenthal DR,Green S,Rothman AL,Ennis FA

    更新日期:2007-12-26 00:00:00

  • Prevalence, risk factors and health consequences of soil-transmitted helminth infection on the Bijagos Islands, Guinea Bissau: A community-wide cross-sectional study.

    abstract::Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are endemic and widespread across Sub-Saharan Africa. A community wide soil-transmitted helminth (STH) prevalence survey was performed on the island of Bubaque in Guinea-Bissau using both Kato-katz microscopy and qPCR methodology. Predictors of infection and morbidity indicators were i...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008938

    authors: Farrant O,Marlais T,Houghton J,Goncalves A,Teixeira da Silva Cassama E,Cabral MG,Nakutum J,Manjuba C,Rodrigues A,Mabey D,Bailey R,Last A

    更新日期:2020-12-16 00:00:00

  • Leishmania donovani develops resistance to drug combinations.

    abstract::Drug combinations for the treatment of leishmaniasis represent a promising and challenging chemotherapeutic strategy that has recently been implemented in different endemic areas. However, the vast majority of studies undertaken to date have ignored the potential risk that Leishmania parasites could develop resistance...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001974

    authors: García-Hernández R,Manzano JI,Castanys S,Gamarro F

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Use of genomic DNA as an indirect reference for identifying gender-associated transcripts in morphologically identical, but chromosomally distinct, Schistosoma mansoni cercariae.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The use of DNA microarray technology to study global Schistosoma gene expression has led to the rapid identification of novel biological processes, pathways or associations. Implementation of standardized DNA microarray protocols across laboratories would assist maximal interpretation of generated datasets a...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000323

    authors: Fitzpatrick JM,Protasio AV,McArdle AJ,Williams GA,Johnston DA,Hoffmann KF

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Mild manifestations of COVID-19 in healthcare workers.

    abstract::Medical staff treating Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are at high risk for exposure to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and many have been infected, which may cause panic among medical workers, their relatives, health professionals, and government leaders. We report the epide...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008950

    authors: Li J,Long X,Zhang Q,Fang X,Li N,Lin Z,Li J,Xiong N

    更新日期:2020-12-22 00:00:00

  • Impact of health research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries: the case of WHO/TDR programmes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Measuring the impact of capacity strengthening support is a priority for the international development community. Several frameworks exist for monitoring and evaluating funding results and modalities. Based on its long history of support, we report on the impact of individual and institutional capacity stren...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001351

    authors: Minja H,Nsanzabana C,Maure C,Hoffmann A,Rumisha S,Ogundahunsi O,Zicker F,Tanner M,Launois P

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in patients with scrub typhus and its role in growth restriction of Orientia tsutsugamushi.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Our earlier genome-wide expression study revealed up-regulation of a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), in patients with scrub typhus. This gene has been previously reported to have anti-microbial activity in a variety of infectious diseases; therefore, we aimed to prove whet...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001731

    authors: Prachason T,Konhan K,Pongnarin P,Chatsiricharoenkul S,Suputtamongkol Y,Limwongse C

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Levofloxacin cures experimental pneumonic plague in African green monkeys.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. METHODS AND RESULTS:Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlo...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000959

    authors: Layton RC,Mega W,McDonald JD,Brasel TL,Barr EB,Gigliotti AP,Koster F

    更新日期:2011-02-08 00:00:00

  • The genus Madurella: Molecular identification and epidemiology in Sudan.

    abstract::Eumycetoma (mycotic mycetoma) is the fungal form of mycetoma, a subcutaneous infection occurring in individuals living in endemic areas of the disease. The Sudan is hyperendemic for mycetoma, with the highest incidence being reported from Gezira State, Central Sudan. The present study was conducted at the Gezira Mycet...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008420

    authors: Ahmed EA,Nour BYM,Abakar AD,Hamid S,Mohamadani AA,Daffalla M,Mahmoud M,Altayb HN,Desnos-Ollivier M,de Hoog S,Ahmed SA

    更新日期:2020-07-30 00:00:00

  • The validity of diagnostic cut-offs for commercial and in-house scrub typhus IgM and IgG ELISAs: A review of the evidence.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease that causes acute febrile illness. Diagnosis is made based upon serology, or detection of the causative agent-Orientia tsutsugamushi-using PCR or in vitro isolation. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is an objective and reproducible means of detecting ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0007158

    authors: Saraswati K,Phanichkrivalkosil M,Day NPJ,Blacksell SD

    更新日期:2019-02-04 00:00:00

  • Loss in lung volume and changes in the immune response demonstrate disease progression in African green monkeys infected by small-particle aerosol and intratracheal exposure to Nipah virus.

    abstract::Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus Henipavirus) that emerged in the late 1990s in Malaysia and has since been identified as the cause of sporadic outbreaks of severe febrile disease in Bangladesh and India. NiV infection is frequently associated with severe respiratory or neurological disease in infected huma...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005532

    authors: Cong Y,Lentz MR,Lara A,Alexander I,Bartos C,Bohannon JK,Hammoud D,Huzella L,Jahrling PB,Janosko K,Jett C,Kollins E,Lackemeyer M,Mollura D,Ragland D,Rojas O,Solomon J,Xu Z,Munster V,Holbrook MR

    更新日期:2017-04-07 00:00:00

  • Capture-based enrichment of Theileria parva DNA enables full genome assembly of first buffalo-derived strain and reveals exceptional intra-specific genetic diversity.

    abstract::Theileria parva is an economically important, intracellular, tick-transmitted parasite of cattle. A live vaccine against the parasite is effective against challenge from cattle-transmissible T. parva but not against genotypes originating from the African Cape buffalo, a major wildlife reservoir, prompting the need to ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008781

    authors: Palmateer NC,Tretina K,Orvis J,Ifeonu OO,Crabtree J,Drabék E,Pelle R,Awino E,Gotia HT,Munro JB,Tallon L,Morrison WI,Daubenberger CA,Nene V,Knowles DP,Bishop RP,Silva JC

    更新日期:2020-10-29 00:00:00

  • Killing of diverse eye pathogens (Acanthamoeba spp., Fusarium solani, and Chlamydia trachomatis) with alcohols.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Blindness is caused by eye pathogens that include a free-living protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. byersi, and/or other Acanthamoeba spp.), a fungus (Fusarium solani), and a bacterium (Chlamydia trachomatis). Hand-eye contact is likely a contributor to the spread of these pathogens, and so hand washing wi...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005382

    authors: Aqeel Y,Rodriguez R,Chatterjee A,Ingalls RR,Samuelson J

    更新日期:2017-02-09 00:00:00

  • Loss of cytoplasmic incompatibility in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti under field conditions.

    abstract::Wolbachia bacteria are now being introduced into Aedes aegypti mosquito populations for dengue control. When Wolbachia infections are at a high frequency, they influence the local transmission of dengue by direct virus blocking as well as deleterious effects on vector mosquito populations. However, the effectiveness o...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0007357

    authors: Ross PA,Ritchie SA,Axford JK,Hoffmann AA

    更新日期:2019-04-19 00:00:00

  • High Resolution Melting Analysis Targeting hsp70 as a Fast and Efficient Method for the Discrimination of Leishmania Species.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a large spectrum of clinical manifestations known as Leishmaniases. These diseases are increasingly important public health problems in many countries both within and outside endemic regions. Thus, an accurate differential diagnosis is extremely relevant for ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004485

    authors: Zampieri RA,Laranjeira-Silva MF,Muxel SM,Stocco de Lima AC,Shaw JJ,Floeter-Winter LM

    更新日期:2016-02-29 00:00:00

  • Kala-azar elimination in a highly-endemic district of Bihar, India: A success story.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-azar has been a major public health problem in Bihar, India, for several decades. A few VL infected districts including Vaishali have reported >600 cases annually. Hence, in 2015, the Government of India entrusted ICMR-Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Scienc...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008254

    authors: Kumar V,Mandal R,Das S,Kesari S,Dinesh DS,Pandey K,Das VR,Topno RK,Sharma MP,Dasgupta RK,Das P

    更新日期:2020-05-04 00:00:00

  • Defining Brugia malayi and Wolbachia symbiosis by stage-specific dual RNA-seq.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Filarial nematodes currently infect up to 54 million people worldwide, with millions more at risk for infection, representing the leading cause of disability in the developing world. Brugia malayi is one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and remains the only human filarial parasite that can be ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005357

    authors: Grote A,Voronin D,Ding T,Twaddle A,Unnasch TR,Lustigman S,Ghedin E

    更新日期:2017-03-30 00:00:00

  • Developing a Time Series Predictive Model for Dengue in Zhongshan, China Based on Weather and Guangzhou Dengue Surveillance Data.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Dengue is a re-emerging infectious disease of humans, rapidly growing from endemic areas to dengue-free regions due to favorable conditions. In recent decades, Guangzhou has again suffered from several big outbreaks of dengue; as have its neighboring cities. This study aims to examine the impact of dengue ep...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004473

    authors: Zhang Y,Wang T,Liu K,Xia Y,Lu Y,Jing Q,Yang Z,Hu W,Lu J

    更新日期:2016-02-19 00:00:00

  • Classification of Rhinoentomophthoromycosis into Atypical, Early, Intermediate, and Late Disease: A Proposal.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Rhinoentomophthoromycosis, or rhino-facial conidiobolomycosis, is a rare, grossly disfiguring disease due to an infection with entomophthoralean fungi. We report a case of rhinoentomophthoromycosis from Gabon and suggest a staging system, which provides information on the prognosis and duration of antifungal...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003984

    authors: Blumentrath CG,Grobusch MP,Matsiégui PB,Pahlke F,Zoleko-Manego R,Nzenze-Aféne S,Mabicka B,Sanguinetti M,Kremsner PG,Schaumburg F

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Outbreak of human brucellosis in Southern Brazil and historical review of data from 2009 to 2018.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Human brucellosis (HB) is a bacterial zoonosis that is more frequent in low income and middle-income countries; it is sometimes associated with outbreaks. The aim of this study was to describe the largest outbreak of HB in Brazil. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study of patients suspected of having contract...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006770

    authors: Lemos TS,Cequinel JC,Costa TP,Navarro AB,Sprada A,Shibata FK,Gondolfo R,Tuon FF

    更新日期:2018-09-18 00:00:00

  • The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Zoonotic Canine Filarial Parasites Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens and Candidatus Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) hongkongensis Provide Evidence for Presence of Cryptic Species.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cutaneous dirofilariosis is a canine mosquito-borne zoonosis that can cause larva migrans disease in humans. Dirofilaria repens is considered an emerging pathogen occurring with high prevalence in Mediterranean areas and many parts of tropical Asia. In Hong Kong, a second species, Candidatus Dirofilaria hong...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005028

    authors: Yilmaz E,Fritzenwanker M,Pantchev N,Lendner M,Wongkamchai S,Otranto D,Kroidl I,Dennebaum M,Le TH,Anh Le T,Ramünke S,Schaper R,von Samson-Himmelstjerna G,Poppert S,Krücken J

    更新日期:2016-10-11 00:00:00

  • The impact and cost-effectiveness of controlling cholera through the use of oral cholera vaccines in urban Bangladesh: A disease modeling and economic analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cholera remains an important public health problem in major cities in Bangladesh, especially in slum areas. In response to growing interest among local policymakers to control this disease, this study estimated the impact and cost-effectiveness of preventive cholera vaccination over a ten-year period in a hi...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006652

    authors: Khan AI,Levin A,Chao DL,DeRoeck D,Dimitrov DT,Khan JAM,Islam MS,Ali M,Islam MT,Sarker AR,Clemens JD,Qadri F

    更新日期:2018-10-09 00:00:00

  • Zika virus like particles elicit protective antibodies in mice.

    abstract::Mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) typically causes a mild and self-limiting illness known as Zika fever. Since its recent emergence in 2014 in the American continent, ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been closely associated with a wide range of congenital abnormalities. To date, no vaccines or antivirals are publicl...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006210

    authors: Salvo MA,Kingstad-Bakke B,Salas-Quinchucua C,Camacho E,Osorio JE

    更新日期:2018-02-05 00:00:00

  • Increased risk for Entamoeba histolytica infection and invasive amebiasis in HIV seropositive men who have sex with men in Taiwan.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Incidence of Entamoeba histolytica infection and clinical manifestations and treatment response of invasive amebiasis (IA) in HIV-infected patients have rarely been investigated before. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:At the National Taiwan University Hospital, medical records of HIV-infected patients who re...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000175

    authors: Hung CC,Ji DD,Sun HY,Lee YT,Hsu SY,Chang SY,Wu CH,Chan YH,Hsiao CF,Liu WC,Colebunders R

    更新日期:2008-02-27 00:00:00

  • Host immune responses induced by specific Mycobacterium leprae antigens in an overnight whole-blood assay correlate with the diagnosis of paucibacillary leprosy patients in China.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects over 200,000 people annually worldwide and remains endemic in the ethnically diverse, mountainous and underdeveloped southwestern provinces of China. Delayed diagnosis of leprosy persists in China, thus, additional knowledge to support early diagnosis, especia...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0007318

    authors: Chen X,You YG,Yuan YH,Yuan LC,Wen Y

    更新日期:2019-04-24 00:00:00

  • Effects of 'The Vicious Worm' educational tool on Taenia solium knowledge retention in Zambian primary school students after one year.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite endemic throughout many low-income countries worldwide, including Zambia, where it causes human and pig diseases with high health and socioeconomic burdens. Lack of knowledge is a recognized risk factor, and consequently targeted health educational programs can ...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0007336

    authors: Hobbs EC,Mwape KE,Devleesschauwer B,Van Damme I,Krit M,Berkvens D,Zulu G,Mambwe M,Chembensofu M,Trevisan C,Baauw J,Phiri IK,Speybroeck N,Ketzis J,Dorny P,Willingham AL,Gabriël S

    更新日期:2019-05-20 00:00:00

  • A randomized trial of AmBisome monotherapy and AmBisome and miltefosine combination to treat visceral leishmaniasis in HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients requires special case management. AmBisome monotherapy at 40 mg/kg is recommended by the World Health Organization. The objective of the study was to assess if a combination of a lower dose of AmBisome with miltefosine wou...

    journal_title:PLoS neglected tropical diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006988

    authors: Diro E,Blesson S,Edwards T,Ritmeijer K,Fikre H,Admassu H,Kibret A,Ellis SJ,Bardonneau C,Zijlstra EE,Soipei P,Mutinda B,Omollo R,Kimutai R,Omwalo G,Wasunna M,Tadesse F,Alves F,Strub-Wourgaft N,Hailu A,Alexander N,

    更新日期:2019-01-17 00:00:00