Antibiotics for preventing respiratory tract infections in adults receiving intensive care.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES:Pneumonia is an important cause of mortality in intensive care units. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics for preventing respiratory tract infections and overall mortality in adults receiving intensive care. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched MEDLINE, proceedings of scientific meetings and reference lists of articles from January 1984 to September 1997. We also contacted investigators in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised trials of antibiotic prophylaxis for respiratory tract infections and deaths among adult intensive care unit patients. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Trials were assessed for quality and investigators contacted for additional information. MAIN RESULTS:Overall 33 trials involving 5727 people were included. There was variation in the antibiotics used, patient characteristics and the risk of respiratory tract infections and mortality in the control groups. In 16 trials (involving 3493 patients) of a topical and systemic antibiotic combination, the average rates of respiratory tract infections and deaths in the control group were 33% and 28% respectively. There was a significant reduction of both respiratory tract infections (odds ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0. 43) and total mortality (odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0. 68 to 0.93). On average five patients needed to be treated to prevent one infection and 23 treated to prevent one death. In 17 trials (involving 2366 patients) of topical antimicrobials the rates of respiratory tract infections and deaths in the control groups were 30% and 24% respectively. There was a significant reduction of respiratory tract infections (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 0.69) but not in total mortality (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.22). REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS:A combination of topical and systemic prophylactic antibiotics can reduce respiratory tract infections and overall mortality in adult patients receiving intensive care. [This abstract has been prepared centrally.]

authors

Liberati A,D'Amico R,Pifferi S,Leonetti C,Torri V,Brazzi L,Tinazzi A

doi

10.1002/14651858.CD000022

keywords:

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2000-01-01 00:00:00

pages

CD000022

issue

2

issn

1469-493X

pii

CD000022

pub_type

杂志文章,评审
  • Stem cell therapy for chronic ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A promising approach to the treatment of chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure is the use of stem cells. The last decade has seen a plethora of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) developed worldwide which have generated conflicting results. OBJECTIVES:The critical evaluation of clinical e...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007888.pub2

    authors: Fisher SA,Brunskill SJ,Doree C,Mathur A,Taggart DP,Martin-Rendon E

    更新日期:2014-04-29 00:00:00

  • Antibiotic lock for the prevention of catheter-related infection in neonates.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Use of a central venous catheter (CVC) in neonates is associated with an increase in nosocomial infection. Numerous strategies exist to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI); however, CRBSI continues to be a major problem. Antibiotic locking catheters is a new and promising treatment that po...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010336.pub2

    authors: Taylor JE,Tan K,Lai NM,McDonald SJ

    更新日期:2015-06-04 00:00:00

  • Postnatal parental education for optimizing infant general health and parent-infant relationships.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Many learning needs arise in the early postpartum period and it is important to examine interventions being used to educate new parents about caring for themselves and their newborns during this time. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of structured postnatal education delivered by an educator to an individua...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004068.pub2

    authors: Gagnon AJ,Bryanton J

    更新日期:2009-01-21 00:00:00

  • WITHDRAWN: Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Intravenous thrombolytic therapy is the standard care for patients with acute myocardial infarction, based upon its widespread availability and ability to reduce patient mortality well demonstrated in randomised trials. Despite its proven efficacy, thrombolytic therapy has limitations. Many patients are inel...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001560.pub2

    authors: Cucherat M,Bonnefoy E,Tremeau G

    更新日期:2007-07-18 00:00:00

  • WITHDRAWN: Caesarean delivery for the second twin.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The optimal mode of birth for a second twin in breech position is controversial, with support for both caesarean and vaginal birth. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the effects of caesarean birth compared with vaginal birth of a second twin not presenting cephalically. SEARCH METHODS:T...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000047.pub2

    authors: Crowther CA

    更新日期:2011-12-07 00:00:00

  • WITHDRAWN: Interventions for treating acute and chronic Achilles tendinitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Achilles tendinitis is one of the most common of all sports injuries. There is no consensus on treatment. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effectiveness of various treatment interventions for acute and chronic Achilles tendinitis in adults. SEARCH STRATEGY:The Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group specialis...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000232.pub2

    authors: McLauchlan G,Handoll HH

    更新日期:2011-08-10 00:00:00

  • Inhaled fluticasone propionate for chronic asthma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) is a relatively new inhaled corticosteroid for the treatment of asthma. OBJECTIVES:1. To assess efficacy and safety outcomes in studies that compared FP to placebo for treatment of chronic asthma. 2. To explore the presence of a dose-response effect. SEARCH STRATEGY:We s...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003135

    authors: Adams N,Bestall J,Jones PW

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Crisis intervention for people with severe mental illnesses.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A particularly difficult challenge for community treatment of people with serious mental illnesses is the delivery of an acceptable level of care during the acute phases of severe mental illness. Crisis-intervention models of care were developed as a possible solution. OBJECTIVES:To review the effects of cr...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001087.pub5

    authors: Murphy SM,Irving CB,Adams CE,Waqar M

    更新日期:2015-12-03 00:00:00

  • Oral naltrexone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Research on the clinical application of oral naltrexone agrees on several things. From a pharmacological perspective, naltrexone works. From an applied perspective, however, the medication compliance and the retention rates are very poor. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effects of naltrexone maintenance treatmen...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001333.pub3

    authors: Minozzi S,Amato L,Vecchi S,Davoli M,Kirchmayer U,Verster A

    更新日期:2011-02-16 00:00:00

  • Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping and other strategies to influence placental transfusion at preterm birth on maternal and infant outcomes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Infants born preterm (before 37 weeks' gestation) have poorer outcomes than infants at term, particularly if born before 32 weeks. Early cord clamping has been standard practice over many years, and enables quick transfer of the infant to neonatal care. Delayed clamping allows blood flow between the placenta...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003248.pub4

    authors: Rabe H,Gyte GM,Díaz-Rossello JL,Duley L

    更新日期:2019-09-17 00:00:00

  • Autoinflation for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2006.Otitis media with effusion (OME) or 'glue ear' is an accumulation of fluid in the middle ear, in the absence of acute inflammation or infection. It is the commonest cause of acquired hearing loss in childhood and ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006285.pub2

    authors: Perera R,Glasziou PP,Heneghan CJ,McLellan J,Williamson I

    更新日期:2013-05-31 00:00:00

  • Miniport versus standard ports for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In conventional (standard) laparoscopic cholecystectomy, four abdominal ports (two of 10 mm diameter and two of 5 mm diameter) are used. Recently, use of smaller ports have been reported. OBJECTIVES:To assess the benefits and harms of miniport (defined as ports smaller than conventional ports) laparoscopic ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006804.pub2

    authors: Gurusamy KS,Samraj K,Ramamoorthy R,Farouk M,Fusai G,Davidson BR

    更新日期:2010-03-17 00:00:00

  • Methotrexate monotherapy versus methotrexate combination therapy with non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Methotrexate (MTX) is among the most effective disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with less toxicity and better tolerability. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of MTX monotherapy compared to MTX combination with non-biologic DMARDs in adult with RA. ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008495

    authors: Katchamart W,Trudeau J,Phumethum V,Bombardier C

    更新日期:2010-04-14 00:00:00

  • Endovenous ablation (radiofrequency and laser) and foam sclerotherapy versus conventional surgery for great saphenous vein varices.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Minimally invasive techniques to treat great saphenous varicose veins include ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (USGFS), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and endovenous laser therapy (EVLT). Compared with conventional surgery (high ligation and stripping (HL/S)), proposed benefits include fewer complications...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005624.pub2

    authors: Nesbitt C,Eifell RK,Coyne P,Badri H,Bhattacharya V,Stansby G

    更新日期:2011-10-05 00:00:00

  • Chemotherapy for brain metastases from small cell lung cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 20% of all cases of lung cancer. It tends to disseminate early in the course of its natural history and to grow quickly. Approximately 10% to 18% of patients present with brain metastases (BM) at the time of initial diagnosis, and an additional 40% to ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007464.pub2

    authors: Reveiz L,Rueda JR,Cardona AF

    更新日期:2012-06-13 00:00:00

  • Continuous passive motion following total knee arthroplasty in people with arthritis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Total knee arthroplasty is a common intervention for patients with arthritis. Post-surgical rehabilitation often includes continuous passive motion. However, it is not clear whether continuous passive motion is effective. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effectiveness of continuous passive motion following total ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004260.pub2

    authors: Harvey LA,Brosseau L,Herbert RD

    更新日期:2010-03-17 00:00:00

  • Psychological interventions for symptomatic management of non-specific chest pain in patients with normal coronary anatomy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recurrent chest pain in the absence of coronary artery disease is a common problem that sometimes leads to excess use of medical care. Although many studies examine the causes of pain in these patients, few clinical trails have evaluated treatment. The studies reviewed in this paper provide an insight into t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004101.pub2

    authors: Kisely S,Campbell LA,Skerritt P

    更新日期:2005-01-25 00:00:00

  • Methadone at tapered doses for the management of opioid withdrawal.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The evidence of tapered methadone's efficacy in managing opioid withdrawal has been systematically evaluated in the previous version of this review that needs to be updated OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effectiveness of tapered methadone compared with other detoxification treatments and placebo in managing opi...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003409.pub4

    authors: Amato L,Davoli M,Minozzi S,Ferroni E,Ali R,Ferri M

    更新日期:2013-02-28 00:00:00

  • Antenatal cardiotocography for fetal assessment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cardiotocography (CTG) is a continuous recording of the fetal heart rate obtained via an ultrasound transducer placed on the mother's abdomen. CTG is widely used in pregnancy as a method of assessing fetal well-being, predominantly in pregnancies with increased risk of complications. OBJECTIVES:To assess th...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007863.pub3

    authors: Grivell RM,Alfirevic Z,Gyte GM,Devane D

    更新日期:2012-12-12 00:00:00

  • Vitamin E supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:People with cystic fibrosis are at an increased risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, including vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiency can cause a host of conditions such as haemolytic anaemia, cerebellar ataxia and cognitive difficulties. Vitamin E supplementation is widely recommended for people with cystic fib...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009422.pub4

    authors: Okebukola PO,Kansra S,Barrett J

    更新日期:2020-09-06 00:00:00

  • Antibiotics prior to amniotomy for reducing infectious morbidity in mother and infant.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Amniotomy (the deliberate rupture of membranes) was described almost two centuries ago and since then has been used both for induction and augmentation of labour - which are common obstetric practices. Trends have shown a rise in the induction rates over the last decade and data suggest that the rate of labo...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010626.pub2

    authors: Ray A,Ray S

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Yoga in addition to standard care for patients with haematological malignancies.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Haematological malignancies are malignant neoplasms of the myeloid or lymphatic cell lines including leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma. In order to manage physical and psychological aspects of the disease and its treatment, complementary therapies like yoga are coming increasingly into focus. However, the effe...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010146.pub2

    authors: Felbel S,Meerpohl JJ,Monsef I,Engert A,Skoetz N

    更新日期:2014-06-12 00:00:00

  • Posterior versus lateral surgical approach for total hip arthroplasty in adults with osteoarthritis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a progressive condition that has no cure and often requires a total hip arthroplasty (THA). The principal methods for THA are the posterior and direct lateral approaches. The posterior approach is considered to be easy to perform, however, increased rates of dislocation have...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003828.pub3

    authors: Jolles BM,Bogoch ER

    更新日期:2006-07-19 00:00:00

  • Decision aids for people facing health treatment or screening decisions.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Decision aids are interventions designed to help people make specific and deliberative choices among options (including status quo) by providing (at a minimum) information on the options and outcomes relevant to a person's health status. A systematic review is needed to summarize what is known about their ef...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001431

    authors: O'Connor AM,Stacey D,Rovner D,Holmes-Rovner M,Tetroe J,Llewellyn-Thomas H,Entwistle V,Rostom A,Fiset V,Barry M,Jones J

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Vascular access specialist teams for device insertion and prevention of failure.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Most people admitted to hospitals worldwide require a vascular access device (VAD). Hundreds of millions of VADs are inserted annually in the USA with reports of over a billion peripheral intravenous catheters used annually worldwide. Numerous reports suggest that a team approach for the assessment, insertio...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011429.pub2

    authors: Carr PJ,Higgins NS,Cooke ML,Mihala G,Rickard CM

    更新日期:2018-03-20 00:00:00

  • Chronotherapy versus conventional statins therapy for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Elevated levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein play an important role in the development of atheromas and, therefore, in cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol biosynthesis follows a circadian rhythm and is principally produced at night (between 12:00 am and 6:00 am). The adjustment of hypoli...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009462.pub2

    authors: Izquierdo-Palomares JM,Fernandez-Tabera JM,Plana MN,Añino Alba A,Gómez Álvarez P,Fernandez-Esteban I,Saiz LC,Martin-Carrillo P,Pinar López Ó

    更新日期:2016-11-26 00:00:00

  • Written and verbal information versus verbal information only for patients being discharged from acute hospital settings to home.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:It is becoming commonplace for patients to be discharged earlier from acute hospital settings to their own homes and be required to manage various aspects of their own care. This has increased the need for detailed information to be given to patients and/or significant others to enable them to effectively ma...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003716

    authors: Johnson A,Sandford J,Tyndall J

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Alternative positions for the baby at birth before clamping the umbilical cord.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The third stage of labour is from birth of the baby until delivery of the placenta. Clamping the umbilical cord is one component of active management of the third stage. Deferring cord clamping allows blood flow between the baby and the placenta to continue; net transfer to the baby is called placental trans...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007555.pub2

    authors: Airey RJ,Farrar D,Duley L

    更新日期:2010-10-06 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological interventions for clozapine-induced hypersalivation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Clozapine is widely used for people with schizophrenia. Although agranulocytosis, weight gain, and cardiac problems are serious problems associated with its use, hypersalivation, sometimes of a gross and socially unacceptable quantity, is also common (30-80%). OBJECTIVES:To determine the clinical effects of...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005579.pub2

    authors: Syed R,Au K,Cahill C,Duggan L,He Y,Udu V,Xia J

    更新日期:2008-07-16 00:00:00

  • HIV prevention advice for people with serious mental illness.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:People with serious mental illness have rates of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) infection higher than expected in the general population for the same demographic area. Despite this elevated prevalence, UK national strategies around sexual health and HIV prevention do not state that people with serious m...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009639.pub3

    authors: Wright N,Akhtar A,Tosh GE,Clifton AV

    更新日期:2016-09-09 00:00:00