"Catastrophic" pathways to smoking cessation: findings from national survey.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE:To assess the extent to which the prevailing model of smoking cessation (that smokers typically prepare their attempts to stop smoking in advance and that doing so increases their chances of success) is correct. DESIGN:Cross sectional household survey. SETTING:England. PARTICIPANTS:918 smokers who reported having made at least one quit attempt and 996 ex-smokers aged 16 and over. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Whether the most recent quit attempt was planned in advance and whether quit attempts made at least six months before resulted in at least six months' abstinence. RESULTS:48.6% of smokers reported that their most recent quit attempt was put into effect immediately the decision to quit was made. Unplanned quit attempts were more likely to succeed for at least six months: among respondents who had made a quit attempt between six months and five years previously the odds of success were 2.6 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.9 to 3.6) in unplanned attempts than in planned attempts; in quit attempts made 6-12 months previously the corresponding figure was 2.5 (1.4 to 4.7). The differences remained after controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic group. CONCLUSIONS:A model of the process of change based on "catastrophe theory" is proposed, in which smokers have varying levels of motivational "tension" to stop and then "triggers" in the environment result in a switch in motivational state. If that switch involves immediate renunciation of cigarettes, this can signal a more complete transformation than if it involves a plan to quit at some future point.

journal_name

BMJ

authors

West R,Sohal T

doi

10.1136/bmj.38723.573866.AE

keywords:

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2006-02-25 00:00:00

pages

458-60

issue

7539

eissn

0959-8138

issn

1756-1833

pii

bmj.38723.573866.AE

journal_volume

332

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Why general practitioners and consultants change their clinical practice: a critical incident study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe the complete range of factors which doctors recognise as changing their clinical practice and provide a measure of how often education is involved in change. DESIGN:Interviews using the critical incident technique. SETTING:Primary and secondary care. SUBJECTS:Random sample of 50 general practit...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7084.870

    authors: Allery LA,Owen PA,Robling MR

    更新日期:1997-03-22 00:00:00

  • Preventing iron deficiency in preschool children by implementing an educational and screening programme in an inner city practice.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the feasibility and acceptability of screening young children for iron deficiency in a deprived inner city practice and to assess the effects of a programme of dietary education. DESIGN:Prospective study of children in general practice, comparison with historical controls. SETTING:A deprived inner...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.299.6703.838

    authors: James J,Lawson P,Male P,Oakhill A

    更新日期:1989-09-30 00:00:00

  • Contribution of dihydrotestosterone to male sexual behaviour.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To document the relative importance of endogenous sex steroids in modulating the frequency of orgasms, the dominant aspect of sexual behaviour in healthy eugonadal men. DESIGN:Measurement of adrenal and testicular sex steroids in a sample of army recruits and study of their relation to frequency of orgasms a...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.310.6990.1289

    authors: Mantzoros CS,Georgiadis EI,Trichopoulos D

    更新日期:1995-05-20 00:00:00

  • Effects of locality based community hospital care on independence in older people needing rehabilitation: randomised controlled trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the effects on independence in older people needing rehabilitation in a locality based community hospital compared with care on a ward for elderly people in a district general hospital. DESIGN:Randomised controlled trial. SETTING:Care in a community hospital and district general hospital in Bra...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1136/bmj.38498.387569.8F

    authors: Green J,Young J,Forster A,Mallinder K,Bogle S,Lowson K,Small N

    更新日期:2005-08-06 00:00:00

  • Incidence of and mortality from cancer in hypertensive patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To assess incidence of and mortality from cancer in hypertensive patients taking atenolol, comparing the findings with two control populations and with hypertensive patients taking other drugs. DESIGN:Retrospective analysis of patients first seen in the Glasgow Blood Pressure Clinic between 1972 and 1990. P...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.306.6878.609

    authors: Hole DJ,Hawthorne VM,Isles CG,McGhee SM,Robertson JW,Gillis CR,Wapshaw JA,Lever AF

    更新日期:1993-03-06 00:00:00

  • Randomised crossover trial of transdermal fentanyl and sustained release oral morphine for treating chronic non-cancer pain.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To compare patients' preference for transdermal fentanyl or sustained release oral morphine, their level of pain control, and their quality of life after treatment. DESIGN:Randomised, multicentre, international, open label, crossover trial. SETTING:35 centres in Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, the Unite...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7295.1154

    authors: Allan L,Hays H,Jensen NH,de Waroux BL,Bolt M,Donald R,Kalso E

    更新日期:2001-05-12 00:00:00

  • Genetically determined factors as predictors of radiological change in patients with early symmetrical arthritis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether genetic factors associated with established rheumatoid arthritis could, in combination with rheumatoid factor, predict the development of radiological erosions in patients with early symmetrical (rheumatoid-like) arthritis. DESIGN:Prospective study. SETTING:Teaching hospital, early arth...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.305.6866.1387

    authors: Emery P,Salmon M,Bradley H,Wordsworth P,Tunn E,Bacon PA,Waring R

    更新日期:1992-12-05 00:00:00

  • Postapproval studies of drugs initially approved by the FDA on the basis of limited evidence: systematic review.

    abstract::Objective To characterize the prospective controlled clinical studies for all novel drugs that were initially approved by the Food and Drug Administration on the basis of limited evidence.Design Systematic review.Data sources Drugs@FDA database and PubMed.Study inclusion All prospective controlled clinical studies pub...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1136/bmj.j1680

    authors: Pease AM,Krumholz HM,Downing NS,Aminawung JA,Shah ND,Ross JS

    更新日期:2017-05-03 00:00:00

  • Trial of support treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin in the luteal phase after treatment with buserelin and human menopausal gonadotrophin in women taking part in an in vitro fertilisation programme.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of support with human chorionic gonadotrophin in the luteal phase in women taking part in an in vitro fertilisation programme after buserelin and human menopausal gonadotrophin were used to hyperstimulate their ovaries. DESIGN:Controlled group comparison. SETTING:Outpatient department...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.298.6686.1483

    authors: Smith EM,Anthony FW,Gadd SC,Masson GM

    更新日期:1989-06-03 00:00:00

  • The impact of response to the results of diagnostic tests for malaria: cost-benefit analysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria seem cost effective in standard analyses, but these do not take account of clinicians' response to test results. This study tested the impact of clinicians' response to rapid diagnostic test or microscopy results on the costs and benefits of testing at different levels of ma...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1136/bmj.39395.696065.47

    authors: Lubell Y,Reyburn H,Mbakilwa H,Mwangi R,Chonya S,Whitty CJ,Mills A

    更新日期:2008-01-26 00:00:00

  • Lifestyle changes may be more important than drugs for mild hypertension.

    abstract::The studySheppard JP, Stevens S, Stevens R, Martin U, Mant J, Hobbs R, McManus R. Benefits and harms of antihypertensive treatment in low-risk patients with mild hypertension.Published on 1 December 2018 JAMA Intern Med 2018;178:1626-34.This project was funded by a grant from the National Institute for Health Research...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.l571

    authors: Cook R,Lamont T,Martin R,NIHR Dissemination Centre.

    更新日期:2019-02-15 00:00:00

  • Quality of life measures in health care. I: Applications and issues in assessment.

    abstract::Many clinicians remain unsure of the relevance of measuring quality of life to their clinical practice. In health economics quality of life measures have become the standard means of assessing the results of health care interventions and, more controversially, the means of prioritising funding; but they have many othe...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.305.6861.1074

    authors: Fitzpatrick R,Fletcher A,Gore S,Jones D,Spiegelhalter D,Cox D

    更新日期:1992-10-31 00:00:00

  • Medical ethics: four principles plus attention to scope.

    abstract::The "four principles plus scope" approach provides a simple, accessible, and culturally neutral approach to thinking about ethical issues in health care. The approach, developed in the United States, is based on four common, basic prima facie moral commitments--respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and ju...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1136/bmj.309.6948.184

    authors: Gillon R

    更新日期:1994-07-16 00:00:00

  • Melanoma in people aged 65 and over in Scotland, 1979-89.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Detailed analysis of primary cutaneous melanoma first diagnosed in Scotland in patients aged 65 and over. DESIGN:Comparison of changing incidence, sex distribution, site, histogenetic type, tumour thickness, and prognosis of all primary cutaneous melanomas in patients aged 65 and over diagnosed in Scotland i...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.304.6829.746

    authors: McHenry PM,Hole DJ,MacKie RM

    更新日期:1992-03-21 00:00:00

  • Screening for human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus among blood donors in Sweden: cost effectiveness analysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To analyse the cost effectiveness of a national programme to screen blood donors for infection with the human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus. DESIGN:Three models for calculating the costs and benefits of screening were developed. The first model analysed the cost of continuously testing all donations; the s...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.316.7142.1417

    authors: Tynell E,Andersson S,Lithander E,Arneborn M,Blomberg J,Hansson HB,Krook A,Nomberg M,Ramstedt K,Shanwell A,Bjorkman A

    更新日期:1998-05-09 00:00:00

  • Demographic shifts and medical training.

    abstract::The rapid aging of populations in developing countries as compared to those in the developed world has implications for medical training in these places. Moreover, the growing globalization of employment for many health professionals means that demographic shifts have implications for the training of health professio...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7221.1358

    authors: Ebrahim S

    更新日期:1999-11-20 00:00:00

  • Multiple component patient safety intervention in English hospitals: controlled evaluation of second phase.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To independently evaluate the impact of the second phase of the Health Foundation's Safer Patients Initiative (SPI2) on a range of patient safety measures. Design A controlled before and after design. Five substudies: survey of staff attitudes; review of case notes from high risk (respiratory) patients in med...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.d199

    authors: Benning A,Dixon-Woods M,Nwulu U,Ghaleb M,Dawson J,Barber N,Franklin BD,Girling A,Hemming K,Carmalt M,Rudge G,Naicker T,Kotecha A,Derrington MC,Lilford R

    更新日期:2011-02-03 00:00:00

  • Female streetworking prostitution and HIV infection in Glasgow.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To identify the extent of HIV infection and injecting drug use among female streetworking prostitutes in Glasgow; to estimate the size of the female streetworking prostitute population in the city; and to estimate the number of HIV positive women working as prostitutes on the streets in Glasgow. DESIGN:Obse...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.305.6857.801

    authors: McKeganey N,Barnard M,Leyland A,Coote I,Follet E

    更新日期:1992-10-03 00:00:00

  • China's excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To elucidate current trends and geographical patterns in the sex ratio at birth and in the population aged under 20 in China and to determine the roles played by sex selective abortion and the one child policy. DESIGN:Analysis of household based cross sectional population survey done in November 2005. SETT...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究

    doi:10.1136/bmj.b1211

    authors: Zhu WX,Lu L,Hesketh T

    更新日期:2009-04-09 00:00:00

  • HIV vaccine partnerships offer hope to the developing world.

    abstract::The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, based in New York, US, was established in 1996 to develop a safe and affordable AIDS vaccine. It is funded by a number of large foundations and charities, the British government, and the World Bank. The Initiative's first 2 large projects, 2 research programs into a vaccine...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 新闻

    doi:10.1136/bmj.317.7172.1543

    authors: Matthews H

    更新日期:1998-12-05 00:00:00

  • Purpura and dermal thinning associated with high dose inhaled corticosteroids.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the effect of high dose inhaled corticosteroids on skin. DESIGN:Cross sectional study of patients receiving treatment for chest diseases. SETTING:Outpatient chest clinic in a teaching hospital. PATIENTS:68 Patients divided into four groups of similar age--namely, 15 receiving long term oral predn...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.300.6739.1548

    authors: Capewell S,Reynolds S,Shuttleworth D,Edwards C,Finlay AY

    更新日期:1990-06-16 00:00:00

  • Diurnal variation in incidence of stroke: Oxfordshire community stroke project.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether diurnal variation occurs in the onset of stroke. DESIGN:Community based study over four years. SETTING:Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. SUBJECTS:105,000 people, of whom 675 had a first ever stroke. 545 had a cerebral infarction, 66 had primary intracerebral haemorrhage, 33 had subarachnoid...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.304.6820.155

    authors: Wroe SJ,Sandercock P,Bamford J,Dennis M,Slattery J,Warlow C

    更新日期:1992-01-18 00:00:00

  • Painful crises in sickle cell disease--patients' perspectives.

    abstract::One hundred and two patients returned structured questionnaires sent to clinics for sickle cell disease in the United Kingdom in order to gain greater insight into the patients' perception of painful crises. Most patients who suffer pain crises experience a prodromal stage that should be investigated further to find o...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.297.6646.452

    authors: Murray N,May A

    更新日期:1988-08-13 00:00:00

  • Socioeconomic position in childhood and adulthood and insulin resistance: cross sectional survey using data from British women's heart and health study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the associations between childhood and adulthood social class and insulin resistance. DESIGN:Cross sectional survey. SETTING:23 towns across England, Scotland, and Wales. PARTICIPANTS:4286 women aged 60-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Insulin resistance and other cardiovascular disease risk fact...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7368.805

    authors: Lawlor DA,Ebrahim S,Davey Smith G,British women's heart and health study.

    更新日期:2002-10-12 00:00:00

  • Interpractice audit of diagnosis and management of hypertension in primary care: educational intervention and review of medical records.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether peer review medical audit in a primary care setting changes clinical behaviour in relation to the management of hypertension. DESIGN:Review of medical records in general practices to identify hypertensive patients followed up by assessment of the pre-educational and post-educational mana...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7085.942

    authors: Mashru M,Lant A

    更新日期:1997-03-29 00:00:00

  • Prescription of oxygen concentrators for long term oxygen treatment: reassessment in one district.

    abstract::When oxygen concentrators became available on form FP10 in 1985 the Department of Health and Social Security issued clear guidelines for their prescription for long term treatment. Reassessment of those patients prescribed a concentrator in one district showed that 29 out of 61 patients did not fulfil these criteria. ...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.297.6655.1030

    authors: Walshaw MJ,Lim R,Evans CC,Hind CR

    更新日期:1988-10-22 00:00:00

  • Different systolic blood pressure targets for people with history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack: PAST-BP (Prevention After Stroke--Blood Pressure) randomised controlled trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess whether using intensive blood pressure targets leads to lower blood pressure in a community population of people with prevalent cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN:Open label randomised controlled trial. SETTING:99 general practices in England, with participants recruited in 2009-11. PARTICIPANTS:Peo...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1136/bmj.i708

    authors: Mant J,McManus RJ,Roalfe A,Fletcher K,Taylor CJ,Martin U,Virdee S,Greenfield S,Hobbs FD

    更新日期:2016-02-24 00:00:00

  • Systematic review of mental health interventions for patients with common somatic symptoms: can research evidence from secondary care be extrapolated to primary care?

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To determine the strength of evidence for the effectiveness of mental health interventions for patients with three common somatic conditions (chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic back pain). To assess whether results obtained in secondary care can be extrapolated to primary care an...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7372.1082

    authors: Raine R,Haines A,Sensky T,Hutchings A,Larkin K,Black N

    更新日期:2002-11-09 00:00:00

  • Appraisal of a new scheme for prenatal screening for Down's syndrome.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To appraise a new method of prenatal screening for Down's syndrome based on maternal serum concentrations of alpha fetoprotein, unconjugated oestriol, and human chorionic gonadotrophin combined with maternal age--the "triple test." DESIGN:Examination of the cost effectiveness of the triple test relative to s...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.302.6785.1133

    authors: Sheldon TA,Simpson J

    更新日期:1991-05-11 00:00:00

  • Association of plasma uric acid with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure: mendelian randomisation analysis of two large cohorts.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index. DESIGN:Mendelian randomisation analysis, using variation at specific genes (SLC2A9 (rs7442295) as an instrument fo...

    journal_title:BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1136/bmj.f4262

    authors: Palmer TM,Nordestgaard BG,Benn M,Tybjærg-Hansen A,Davey Smith G,Lawlor DA,Timpson NJ

    更新日期:2013-07-18 00:00:00